Universals and Properties
Bealer (George)
Source: Laurence & Macdonald - Contemporary Readings in the Foundations of Metaphysics
Paper - Abstract

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Philosophers Index Abstract

    This paper summarizes and extends the transmodal1 argument for the existence of universals2 (developed in full detail in "Universals3"). This argument establishes not only the existence of universals4, but also that they exist necessarily, thereby confirming the ante rem view against the post rem and in re views (and also anti-existentialism against existentialism). Once summarized, the argument is extended to refute the trope theory of properties and is also shown to succeed even if possibilism is assumed. A nonreductionist theory of universals5 and properties is then outlined, and it is sketched how to reap the benefits of possibilism and Meinongianism in an actualist setting.

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