<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Johnston (Mark) - Constitution is Not Identity (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_02/PaperSummary_2006.htm">Constitution is Not Identity</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/J/Author_Johnston (Mark).htm">Johnston (Mark)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Rea - Material Constitution - A Reader</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=800><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_02/PaperSummary_2006.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_02/PaperCitings_2006.htm">Books / Papers Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_02/PapersToNotes_2006.htm">Notes Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Author s Introduction</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Suppose that a statue of Goliath is made by fusing together two appropriately shaped pieces of clay and that after a few minutes, the artisan, frustrated with his work, dissolves the statue in a solvent which destroys clay and statue alike. Then a natural thing to say is that the careers of the statue and the lump or piece of clay which made it up are entirely coincident. The statue and the piece of clay came into being at the same time and ceased to be at the same time. Throughout their respective careers, the piece of clay constituted the statue. </li><li>Had the artisan despaired only of the arms and calves of Goliath and dissolved only them, replacing them with new pieces of appropriately molded clay, then we should say that distinct but not wholly distinct pieces of clay constituted the statue of Goliath over its lifetime. In this second case we naturally conclude that the statue is not absolutely identical with the whole piece of clay which originally constituted it, since the piece arguably did not survive the dissolving of significant parts of it, while the statue clearly did survive the dissolving; as is evidenced by the fact that the statue had new arms and calves attached to it. </li><li>So also, it seems natural to conclude that even in the first case in which the original piece of clay constituted the statue throughout its entire career, the statue is not absolutely identical with the clay, since the statue could have survived certain changes which the piece of clay would not have survived, e.g. the changes described in the second case. </li><li>Philosophers have gone to some lengths to resist this last conclusion. Thus David Lewis, Alan Gibbard, Anil Gupta and Denis Robinson all allege that something special about <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>1</SUP> predication invalidates the argument to non-identity in the case of complete <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P2006_2">coincidence</A></U><SUB>2</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P2006_2"></A>. Concentrating on Lewis's way of putting the point, since it fits neatly into a familiar systematic way of thinking of <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>3</SUP>, the situation is supposed to be as <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P2006_4">follows</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P2006_4"></A>. </li><li> & </li></ol></FONT><hr><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>Comment: </B><ul type="disc"><li>Originally published in Mind, 101 (1992), pp. 89 105,</li><li>Included in <a name="7"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6213.htm">Look (Brandon C.) - The Metaphysics of Material Beings: Constitution, Persistence, and Identity</A>".</li></ul><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_P2006_2"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P2006_2"><B>Footnote 2</B></A></U>: <FONT COLOR = "800080">See <ul type="disc"><li><a name="3"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_112.htm">Lewis (David) - Counterparts of Persons and Their Bodies</A>" (1971), </li><li><a name="4"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_444.htm">Gibbard (Allan) - Contingent Identity</A>" (1975), </li><li>Gupta (<em>The Logic of Common Nouns</em>, 1980) and </li><li><a name="5"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3431.htm">Robinson (Denis) - Re-Identifying Matter</A>" (1982). </li></ul> </FONT><a name="On-Page_Link_P2006_4"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P2006_4"><B>Footnote 4</B></A></U>: <FONT COLOR = "800080">The remarks that follow are adapted from <a name="6"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_112.htm">Lewis (David) - Counterparts of Persons and Their Bodies</A>" (1971). </FONT> <BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-03T00:10" pubdate>03/08/2018 00:10:40</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>