<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Quine (W.V.) - Reply to Professor Marcus (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_02/PaperSummary_2140.htm">Reply to Professor Marcus</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/Q/Author_Quine (W.V.).htm">Quine (W.V.)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Quine - The Ways of Paradox and Other Essays</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=600><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_02/PaperSummary_2140.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_02/PaperCitings_2140.htm">Books / Papers Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><u>Author s Introduction</u> <FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Professor Marcus struck the right note when she represented me as suggesting that modern <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal logic</A><SUP>1</SUP> was conceived in sin: the sin of confusing use and mention. She rightly did not represent me as holding that <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal logic</A><SUP>2</SUP> requires confusion of use and mention. My point was a historical one, having to do with Russell's confusion of 'if-then' with 'implies'. </li><li>Lewis founded modern <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal logic</A><SUP>3</SUP>, but Russell provoked him to it. For whereas there is much to be said for the material conditional as a version of 'if-then', there is nothing to be said for it as a version of 'implies'; and Russell called it implication, thus apparently leaving no place open for genuine deductive connections between sentences. Lewis moved to save the connections. But his way was not, as one could have wished, to sort out Russell's confusion of 'implies' with 'if-then'. Instead, preserving that confusion, he propounded a strict conditional and called it implication. </li><li>It is logically possible to like <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal logic</A><SUP>4</SUP> without confusing use and mention. You could like it because, apparently at least, you can quantify into a <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>5</SUP> context by a quantifier outside the <a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>6</SUP> context, whereas you obviously cannot coherently quantify into a mentioned sentence from outside the mention of it. Still, man is a sense-making animal, and as such he derives little comfort from quantifying into <a name="7"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>7</SUP> contexts that he does not think he understands. On this score, confusion of use and mention seems to have more than genetic significance for <a name="8"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal logic</A><SUP>8</SUP>. It seems to be also a sustaining force, engendering an illusion of understanding. </li></ol></FONT><hr><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>Comment: </B><ul type="disc"><li>Reply to <a name="9"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_07/PaperSummary_7758.htm">Marcus (Ruth Barcan) - Modalities and Intensional Languages</A>". </li><li>Originally in Synthese, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Dec., 1961), pp. 323-330 </li></ul><BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-03T00:13" pubdate>03/08/2018 00:13:04</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>