- An argument for the view that (1A) 'Paul thinks that Boscovich was born in Ragusa and that Dubrovnik is a present-day Croatian holiday resort' entails (4A) 'Paul thinks that a town where Boscovich was born is the same as a present-day Croatian holiday resort'.
- Where does the fallacy in this argument lie?
- Not in confusing (3A) 'Paul thinks that, for some town x, both Boscovich was born in x and x is a present-day Croatian holiday resort' with (5A) 'For some x, Paul thinks that, etc.'. If (5A) is entailed by (1A), so is (3A).
- A distinction needs to be made between (2) 'Boscovich was born in Dubrovnik and Dubrovnik is a present-day Croatian holiday resort' and (6) 'Dubrovnik was the birthplace of Boscovich and is a present-day Croatian holiday resort'.
- Two ways of explaining the construction of conjunctive predicables like '--- is old and wise': the explanation in terms of truth and the explanation in terms of satisfaction.
- Conjunctive predicables as the result of operating (i) on a conjunctive proposition with a name in each conjunct by removing these names to form a two-place predicable, and (ii) operating on this predicable, by an operation which can be expressed in several different ways, to form a one-place predicable.
- This latter operation (ii) can be generalized to apply to two-place predicables obtained from atomic as well as from molecular propositions. Here it can be expressed by the reflexive pronoun.
- Geach refuses to generalize the concept of the reflexive pronoun in this way. His reasons for refusing seem to be mistaken.
- I introduce new symbolism (the Xi-operator) to replace that used by Geach to do the work of the reflexive pronoun partly in order to mark the need to generalize the account of operation (ii).
- Using this symbolism we are able to represent the difference between (2A) and (6A) as a matter of scope distinction.
- The fallacious argument presented at the beginning of the chapter forces us to recognize, pace Wittgenstein, the need for a sign of identity, while agreeing that the sign we need is not the sign for a relation.
Photocopy of complete Book filed in "Various - Papers on Identity Boxes: Vol 19 (W)".
Footnote 1: Taken from "Williams (Christopher) - What Is Identity?: Introduction and Analytical Table of Contents". The numbering corresponds to Williams’s section-numbering.
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- Blue: Text by me; © Theo Todman, 2017
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