Could Extended Objects Be Made Out of Simple Parts? An Argument For 'Atomless Gunk'
Zimmerman (Dean)
Source: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, March 1996; 56(1): 1-29
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    If a three-dimensionally extended object were completely decomposable into unextended "simple" parts, it would have to be either "closed", "open", or "partially open"--i.e., it would either have an outermost "skin" of simple parts, lack one, or have one on only part of its surface. The possibility of contact between extended objects raises difficulties for the assumption that all objects are closed, open, partially open, or any combination of these--unless one is prepared to admit that extended objects are not made entirely of simples. Conclusion: If there are extended objects, there is some "atomless gunk".

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