<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Gallois (Andre) - Identity Over Time (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PaperSummary_4716.htm">Identity Over Time</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/G/Author_Gallois (Andre).htm">Gallois (Andre)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, 2005-11</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=600><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PaperSummary_4716.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PapersToNotes_4716.htm">Notes Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Author s Abstract</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><BR><BR>Irving Copi once defined the problem of identity through time by noting that the following two statements both seem true but appear to be inconsistent: <ol type="1"><li>If a changing thing really changes, there can't literally be one and the same thing before and after the change.</li><li>However, if there isn't literally one and the same thing before and after the change, then no thing has really undergone any change. </li></ol>Traditionally, this puzzle has been solved in various ways. Aristotle, for example, distinguished between  accidental and  essential changes. Accidental changes are ones that don't result in a change in an objects' identity after the change, such as when a house is painted, or one's hair turns gray, etc. Aristotle thought of these as changes in the accidental properties of a thing. Essential changes, by contrast, are those which don't preserve the identity of the object when it changes, such as when a house burns to the ground and becomes ashes, or when someone dies. Armed with these distinctions, Aristotle would then say that, in the case of accidental changes, (1) and (2) are both false a changing thing can really change one of its  accidental properties and yet literally remain one and the same thing before and after the change. Of course, this solution to the puzzle depends on there being a coherent distinction between accidental and essential changes, and between accidental and essential properties. Some philosophers find this distinction problematic and have developed other solutions that don't require this distinction. In what follows, we discuss these solutions to the puzzle, along with other puzzles that arise when considering the identity of objects over time.<ol type="1"><li>Introduction</li><li>Identity and Change<BR>& 2.1 Diachronic and Synchronic Identity<BR>& 2.2 Identity as an Equivalence Relation<BR>& 2.3 <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_81.htm">Leibniz's Law</A><SUP>1</SUP> and the Possibility of Change The Problem of Temporary Intrinsics<BR>& 2.4 Candidate Solutions</li><li>Necessary and Determinate Identities</li><li>Diachronic Identity Puzzles<BR>& 4.1 Constitution<BR>& 4.2 Relative Identity<BR>& 4.3 Identity:  Strict and Loose <BR>& 4.4 Arbitrary Undetached Parts<BR>& 4.5 Four Dimensionalism<BR>& 4.6 Temporary Identity<BR>& 4.7 Further Puzzle Cases</li><li>Personal Identity<BR>Bibliography<BR>Academic Tools<BR>Other Internet Resources<BR>Related Entries</li></ol></FONT><hr><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>Comment: </B><BR><BR>First published Fri Mar 18, 2005; substantive revision Thu Mar 17, 2011; <a name="W327W"></a><A HREF = "https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2011/entries/identity-time/" TARGET = "_top">Link</A>.<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T06:23" pubdate>02/08/2018 06:23:42</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>