- Paradigm Individuals: the Higher Animals. I need a more refined vocabulary of individuation1 to describe and classify the diversity of life cycle and modes of growth and reproduction found in nature. In this section I begin to develop this vocabulary by examining the properties of an adult higher animal that make it a paradigm of biological individuality.
- Other Possible Solutions. How do we individuate and count organisms that are not like higher animals?
- The Proposed Solution. We must reform the concept of an individual in biology so that it is applicable to all living things. The higher animal deserves a special place in biological thought because it marks the coextension of six kinds of individuality (A particular; a historical entity; a functional individual; a genetic individual; a developmental individual; and a unit of evolution). But if we realize that these six concepts can be divided from one another, we can develop a useful vocabulary that describes all living entities, most of which do not embody all of the concepts.
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