<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Carter (William) - Once and Future Persons (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5663.htm">Once and Future Persons</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/C/Author_Carter (William).htm">Carter (William)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: American Philosophical Quarterly, 17, Jan. 1980, pp. 61-66</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=600><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5663.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PapersToNotes_5663.htm">Notes Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Author s Introduction</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Austin's <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5663_1">thesis</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5663_1"></A> deserves attention when we run up against vexing questions as to whether certain "borderline" entities  a human <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_71.htm">fetus</A><SUP>2</SUP> or infant, say, or an adult who has been irreversibly incapacitated but not killed in an automobile accident  is a <em><a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_9.htm">person</A><SUP>3</SUP></em>. Can it happen in such cases that statements ascribing personhood "fit the facts" more or less loosely? </li><li>It has been suggested by <a name="7"></a><A HREF = "../../Authors/L/Author_Lewis (David).htm">David Lewis</A> and <a name="8"></a><A HREF = "../../Authors/P/Author_Parfit (Derek).htm">Derek Parfit</A>, among others that there may be <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5663_4">degrees of personhood</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5663_4"></A>. Should that be so, there may be cases in which the "fit" between the facts of the situation and statements predicating personhood of some entity is "loose." </li><li>The fact may be that the survivor of an accident is a person to some extent only. Should we think that a statement is true if and only if it fits, or corresponds to, the facts, and also think that the "fit" may be more or less loose, we will be well on the way to allowing that statements are true to the extent that they fit the facts. </li><li>Regarded in this, all too hazy, light, there may be a point to the claim that there is some truth, but some truth only, in statements saying of certain entities that they are persons. </li><li>The idea that there are gradations or degrees of truth poses tough problems in logic and <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5663_5">semantics</A></U><SUB>5</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5663_5"></A>. These problems are not addressed in this paper. It is the thesis that there are <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_870.htm">degrees of personhood</A><SUP>6</SUP> that is the focus of attention. </li></ol> </FONT><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_P5663_1"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5663_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: That <ul type="disc"><li> <FONT COLOR = "800080">There are various <em>degrees and dimensions</em> of success in making statements: the statements fit the facts always more or less loosely.</FONT> </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P5663_4"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5663_4"><B>Footnote 4</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>See my <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_870.htm">Degrees of Personhood</a> </li><li><FONT COLOR = "800080">Parfit's "Later Selves and Moral Principles," in <em>Philosophy and Personal Relations</em>, ed. by Alan Montefiore (Montreal, 1973) and </li><li><a name="5"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_113.htm">Lewis (David) - Survival and Identity</A>" (1976, p. 32). </li></ul> </FONT> <a name="On-Page_Link_P5663_5"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5663_5"><B>Footnote 5</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li><FONT COLOR = "800080">Many of these problems are addressed in <a name="6"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_15/PaperSummary_15850.htm">Sanford (David H.) - Borderline Logic</A>" (1975, pp.29-39). </FONT></li></ul><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T06:36" pubdate>02/08/2018 06:36:00</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>