<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Simons (Peter) - On Being the Same Ship(s) - or Electron(s): Reply to Hughes (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5882.htm">On Being the Same Ship(s) - or Electron(s): Reply to Hughes</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/S/Author_Simons (Peter).htm">Simons (Peter)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Mind, 106, No. 424, Oct., 1997, pp. 761-767</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=600><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5882.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PapersToNotes_5882.htm">Notes Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Philosophers Index Abstract</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>In a recent paper, (Mind, Jan. 1997), Chris Hughes argued that on standard views of the identity of artifacts like ships, admitting disassembly, reassembly, and part-replacement, two ships may be in the same place at the same time. </li><li>I show that on Hughes's principles many ships may be in many places at the same time. Metaphysically serious problems arise not for artifacts but for entangled fundamental particles, where collocation of things of a kind appears genuine and unavoidable.</li></ol></FONT><BR><U>Author s Introduction</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Irrespective of whether Chris Hughes (1997) has successfully criticised my attempted resolution of the <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">Ship of Theseus</A><SUP>1</SUP> Problem (of which more below), his own liberality in allowing two ships to be in the same place at the same time has much stranger consequences than he reveals. Following his principles, not only can two ships be in the same place at one time, but one ship can be in two places at the same time, indeed the same places as another ship, and one ship can become two ships. Whatever one may think of Locke's Principle, the principle that two things of the same kind cannot be in the same place at the same time (of this too more below), at the very least, adherence to it blocks this mind-boggling case. </li><li>Hughes's argument depends on two principles: <ul type="disc"><li><b>REPL</b> A ship may survive gradual but total part-replacement. </li><li><b>REAS</b> A ship may survive disassembly and subsequent reassembly of its parts. </li></ul>On this basis he argues as follows. Stathis's ship and <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">Theseus</A><SUP>2</SUP>'s ship are exactly alike in the types of their parts and the way these are assembled. (In this they resemble modern mass-produced artifacts, so the issue is by no means merely hypothetical.) Call corresponding parts homologous. Stathis's ship is gradually repaired using homologous parts from <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">Theseus</A><SUP>3</SUP>'s ship until the repair is total. By REPL the ship so repaired is Stathis's. By REAS it is <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">Theseus</A><SUP>4</SUP>'s. But Stathis's ship is not the same ship as <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">Theseus</A><SUP>5</SUP>'s, since their histories are different. So there are two distinct ships in the same place at the same time, contrary to Locke's Principle. </li><li>But now suppose that the parts from Stathis's ship are not discarded but are-placed in their corresponding locations in <a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">Theseus</A><SUP>6</SUP>'s ship. Then at the end of the process the two ships have totally exchanged all their parts. By Hughes's principles however, <a name="7"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">Theseus</A><SUP>7</SUP>'s ship remains his throughout, and at the end of the exchange of parts it is also Stathis's ship, so <a name="8"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">Theseus</A><SUP>8</SUP>'s ship is now in two places at once, as is Stathis's ship. But at the end, as at the beginning, we have two ships. Both of them are Stathis's ship. And both of them are <a name="9"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">Theseus</A><SUP>9</SUP>'s ship. Hence one ship can become two, and two can become each other while <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5882_10">remaining each itself</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5882_10"></A>. </li><li>The problem is worse than that. Where there can be two there can be n. We can imagine a whole armada of a thousand ships, all exactly resembling one another. By suitably juggling their parts, we could arrange for all thousand of them to occupy the space of each of them: each ship becomes a thousand, all hopelessly intertwined. </li></ol> </FONT><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_P5882_10"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5882_10"><B>Footnote 10</B></A></U>: <FONT COLOR = "800080"><ul type="disc"><li>The example of total exchange of parts is not new: Chisholm (1976, p. 90 ) says it is "another ancient version of the problem". </li></ul> </FONT> <FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T06:38" pubdate>02/08/2018 06:38:49</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>