<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Elder (Crawford) - Higher and Lower Essential Natures (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_06/PaperSummary_6020.htm">Higher and Lower Essential Natures</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/E/Author_Elder (Crawford).htm">Elder (Crawford)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: American Philosophical Quarterly, 31.3, July 1994, pp. 255-265</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=200><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_06/PaperSummary_6020.htm">Paper Summary</A></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Philosophers Index Abstract</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1">A main argument for <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>1</SUP> is that items classed together, by a science's taxonomy, must have "necessarily" at least some of their shared and distinctive properties, if the science's characterization of its kinds is to have inductive warrant. But this seems an argument for recognizing both highly general <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>2</SUP> (e.g., halogens) and highly specific ones (e.g., U-235). It could amount to a "reductio" of the belief in <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>3</SUP>, unless there are ways of ruling out overly general or disjunctive kinds (e.g., jade), and overly specific ones (e.g., ice). This paper rules them out, defending <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>4</SUP>.</ol></FONT><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T06:40" pubdate>02/08/2018 06:40:46</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>