<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Parsons (Terence) - Identity (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_06/PaperSummary_6237.htm">Identity</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/P/Author_Parsons (Terence).htm">Parsons (Terence)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Parsons - Indeterminate Identity, 2000, Chapter 3</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=400><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_06/PaperSummary_6237.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Analytic <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P6237_1">TOC</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P6237_1"></A></U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Real identity in the world is defined in terms of coincidence of properties: objects are identical if they both determinately have and determinately lack the same properties, and they are distinct if one determinately has a property that the other determinately lacks. </li><li>If neither of these holds, then it is indeterminate whether the objects are identical. </li><li>It is an empirical matter whether there is any indeterminacy at all, and an empirical matter whether such indeterminacy, if it exists, extends to identity. </li><li>This explanation of identity validates <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_81.htm">Leibniz's Law</A><SUP>2</SUP>: From 'a = b' and '&phi;a' one can infer '&phi;b'. </li><li>But it does not validate the contrapositive form of this law: one might have '&phi;a' and '&phi;b' both true without 'a = b' being true; this can happen if '&phi;x' does not express a property. </li><li>The identity discussed here is not "relative identity" because relative identity, unlike genuine identity, does not validate <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_81.htm">Leibniz's Law</A><SUP>3</SUP>. </li><li>The four identity puzzles are reviewed; in each case in which the identity is indeterminate, there is a property determinately possessed by one object that is not determinately possessed by the other, but there is no property for which they determinately disagree. </li></ol> </FONT><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_P6237_1"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P6237_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: Taken from <a name="3"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6234.htm">Parsons (Terence) - Indeterminate Identity: Analytical Table of Contents</A>". <BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T06:43" pubdate>02/08/2018 06:43:53</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>