A refined model of sleep and the time course of memory formation
Walker (Matthew P.)
Source: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, Issue 01, February 2005, pp 51-64
Paper - Abstract

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Author’s Abstract

    Research in the neurosciences continues to provide evidence that sleep1 plays a role in the processes of learning and memory. There is less of a consensus, however, regarding the precise stages of memory development during which sleep2 is considered a requirement, simply favorable, or not important. This article begins with an overview of recent studies regarding sleep3 and learning, predominantly in the procedural memory domain, and is measured against our current understanding of the mechanisms that govern memory formation. Based on these considerations, I offer a new neurocognitive framework of procedural learning, consisting first of acquisition, followed by two specific stages of consolidation, one involving a process of stabilization, the other involving enhancement, whereby delayed learning occurs. Psychophysiological evidence indicates that initial acquisition does not rely fundamentally on sleep4. This also appears to be true for the stabilization phase of consolidation, with durable representations, resistant to interference, clearly developing in a successful manner during time awake (or just time, per se). In contrast, the consolidation stage, resulting in additional/enhanced learning in the absence of further rehearsal, does appear to rely on the process of sleep5, with evidence for specific sleep-stage6 dependencies across the procedural domain. Evaluations at a molecular, cellular, and systems level currently offer several sleep7 specific candidates that could play a role in sleep-dependent8 learning. These include the upregulation of select plasticity-associated genes, increased protein synthesis, changes in neurotransmitter concentration, and specific electrical events in neuronal networks that modulate synaptic potentiation.

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