<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Putman (Daniel) - Natural Kinds and Human Artifacts (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_07/PaperSummary_7387.htm">Natural Kinds and Human Artifacts</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/P/Author_Putman (Daniel).htm">Putman (Daniel)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Mind, 91, No. 363 (Jul., 1982), pp. 418-419</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=400><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_07/PaperSummary_7387.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_07/PapersToNotes_7387.htm">Notes Citing this Paper</A></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Philosophers Index Abstract</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1">Stephen Schwartz has argued that names for human social and material artifacts do not refer to <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>1</SUP>. Utilizing the device of an alien anthropologist studying our species, the author argues that <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kind</A><SUP>2</SUP> paradigms involving human artifacts would operate for such a scientist in the same way that such paradigms operate for scientists on earth studying nature. "Sloop" or "game," for example, would be analyzed by pegging similarity relations to paradigms and utilizing the latter to look for underlying properties. He concludes that either <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>3</SUP> are relative to the interests and perspective of the observer (categories under study being stages in the "conversation of mankind") or that there are more <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>4</SUP> than we suspect in which case earthly anthropology should join the natural sciences as a source of examples.</ol></FONT><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T06:58" pubdate>02/08/2018 06:58:20</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>