<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Fales (Evans) - Natural Kinds and Freaks of Nature (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_07/PaperSummary_7399.htm">Natural Kinds and Freaks of Nature</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/F/Author_Fales (Evans).htm">Fales (Evans)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Philosophy of Science 49, No. 1. (Mar., 1982), pp. 67-90</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=200><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_07/PaperSummary_7399.htm">Paper Summary</A></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>JSTOR Abstract</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1">Essentialism - understood as the doctrine that there are <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>1</SUP> - can be sustained with respect to the most fundamental physical entities of the world, as I elsewhere argue. In this paper I take up the question of the existence of <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>2</SUP> among complex structures built out of these elementary ones. I consider a number of objections to essentialism, in particular Locke's puzzle about the existence of borderline cases. A number of recent attempts to justify biological taxonomy are critically examined. I conclude that theory partially justifies such taxonomies but supports only a weaker form of essentialism.</ol></FONT><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T06:58" pubdate>02/08/2018 06:58:32</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>