<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Daly (Chris) - Review. Natural kinds. T.E. Wilkerson (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_07/PaperSummary_7428.htm">Review. Natural kinds. T.E. Wilkerson</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/D/Author_Daly (Chris).htm">Daly (Chris)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Mind, 105, Number 419, July 1996, pp. 514-517(4)</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=600><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_07/PaperSummary_7428.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_07/PapersToNotes_7428.htm">Notes Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Introduction</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1">This book presents a thorough and detailed account of the metaphysics of <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>1</SUP>. It is extremely well presented and written with marvellous clarity. Its chief themes are that <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>2</SUP> have real essences, and that laws of nature are metaphysical necessities. In outline, Wilkerson makes the following claims. There are various kinds of entities with various associated explanations. But since physicalism is true, physical facts, and their associated explanations, are privileged (Ch. 1). Some kinds of entities are <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>3</SUP>, others are not. An object is a member of a <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kind</A><SUP>4</SUP> in virtue of having a real essence: a set of properties necessary and sufficient for membership of that kind. It is also a member of a <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kind</A><SUP>5</SUP> irrespective of whatever other objects exist, and whatever properties they have. Hence the properties which form a real essence are intrinsic properties. Moreover, an object s causal powers are determined solely by is intrinsic properties. Since the members of a <a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kind</A><SUP>6</SUP> share certain intrinsic properties (those formed by their real essence), they have characteristic causal powers. Consequently, the members of a <a name="7"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kind</A><SUP>7</SUP> are governed by characteristic causal laws. Three types of non-natural kinds can be distinguished (Ch. 2). The laws of nature hold as a matter of metaphysical necessity. Social sciences probably do not study <a name="8"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>8</SUP>, and so probably are not genuine sciences (Ch. 3). Putnam s theory of <a name="9"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kind</A><SUP>9</SUP> terms needs modifying because many terms in ordinary language classification are intended to designate non-natural kinds, and other such terms intend, but fail, to designate <a name="10"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>10</SUP> (Ch. 4). Species lack necessary and sufficient conditions for membership, and so are not <a name="11"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>11</SUP> (Ch. 5). There are no individual essences (Ch. 6).</ol> </FONT><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T06:59" pubdate>02/08/2018 06:59:03</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>