- The purpose of this paper is to establish a classification of the main ontological categories based on the predication, subsumption, and inherence relation.
- The classification is inspired by Aristotle’s fourfold division of things into objects (primary substances), object kinds (secondary substances), attributes, and attribute kinds.
- It is argued that
- properties and relations are respectively meanings of monadic and polyadic predicate expressions, and
- (determinate) attributes are recurrent abstract particulars so that they are neither monadic nor polyadic.
- It follows that attributes constitute a category quite different from that of properties and relations.
- On the other hand, both object kinds and attribute kinds are considered to be non-semantic universals1 in contradistinction to properties and relations that are semantic.
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