<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>MacBride (Fraser) - Two Theories of Modality: A Reply to von Wachter (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9788.htm">Two Theories of Modality: A Reply to von Wachter</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/M/Author_MacBride (Fraser).htm">MacBride (Fraser)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Metaphysica 6.1 (2005), pp. 111-128</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=400><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_09/PaperSummary_9788.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Author s Abstract</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Without the use of <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>1</SUP> discourse to aid us we should be unable to express many of the most fundamental facts - facts that are fundamental to our understanding of science, mathematics and human agency. </li><li>But the best efforts of philosophers to come to a convincing account of <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>2</SUP> discourse have been bedevilled by a welter of ideological, epistemological and ontological difficulties. </li><li>For this reason many philosophers have endeavoured to provide a  reduction of <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>3</SUP> discourse. It is a philosophical problem in itself to establish just what a reduction must achieve in order to be successful (whether in connection with <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>4</SUP>, the nature of the mental or some other subject matter). Nevertheless, it is clear that  in some sense or other  a reduction of <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>5</SUP> will, if successful, display how facts expressed with the aid of <a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>6</SUP> vocabulary ultimately depend upon facts that need not be expressed in this way. </li><li>A variety of contrasting strategies for executing a <a name="7"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>7</SUP> reduction have been proposed. <ol type="i"><li>Conceptual or analytical reductions seek to show that <a name="8"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>8</SUP> concepts may be analysed into concepts that do not rely upon <a name="9"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>9</SUP> vocabulary for their expression. </li><li>By contrast ontological reductions forswear the idea that <a name="10"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>10</SUP> concepts admit of <a name="11"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">non-modal</A><SUP>11</SUP> analyses or translates. They maintain instead that the truth or falsity of <a name="12"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>12</SUP> claims depends - in a manner that may be perspicuously presented to the intellect without benefit of conceptual analyses- upon the states of an underlying reality, a reality that may be described with recourse to <a name="13"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>13</SUP> vocabulary. </ol></li></ol></FONT><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-03T00:11" pubdate>03/08/2018 00:11:18</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>