The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings
Ehrman (Bart D.)
Source: Ehrman (Bart D.) - The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings
Paper - Abstract

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Contents

  1. WHAT IS THE NEW TESTAMENT? THE EARLY CHRISTIANS AND THEIR LITERATURE - 1
      … Box 1.1 The Canon of Scripture - 2
    • The Diversity of Early Christianity - 2
      … ... Box 1.2 The Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament - 4
    • The New Testament Canon of Scripture - 8
      … ... Box 1.3 The Common Era and Before the Common Era - 9
      … ... Box 1.4 The Layout of the New Testament - 10
      … ... Box 1.5 The New Testament: One Other Set of Problems - 12
    • Implications for Our Study - 13
      … ... Box 1.6 The New Testament Canon - 15
    • Excursus: Some Additional Reflections: The Historian and the Believer - 15
  2. THE WORLD OF EARLY CHRISTIAN TRADITIONS - 18
    • The Problem of Beginnings - 18
    • One Remarkable Life - 19
      ... Box 2.1 Pagan and Gentile - 20
      ... Box 2.2 The Greco-Roman World - 21
      The Environment of the New Testament: Religions in the Greco-Roman World - 23
      ... Box 2.3 The Roman Empire - 28
      ... Box 2.4 Divine Rulers as Savior Gods - 30
      ... Box 2.5 Christianity as a Mystery Cult - 34
    • Judaism as a Greco-Roman Religion - 35
      ... Box 2.6 The Septuagint: The Hebrew Bible in Greek - 38
      ... Box 2.7 Women in the Synagogues - 43
      ... Box 2.8 Other Jewish Miracle-Working Sons of God - 44
      ... Box 2.9 The World of Early Christianity - 45
  3. THE TRADITIONS OF JESUS IN THEIR GRECO-ROMAN CONTEXT - 48
    • Oral Traditions behind the Gospels - 49
      … Box 3.1 Orality and Literacy in the Ancient World - 54
      ... Box 3.2 Mark and John on the Time of Jesus' Death - 57
      ... Box 3.3 The Traditions of Jesus - 58
    • Some Additional Reflections: The Authors of the Gospels - 58
  4. THE CHRISTIAN GOSPELS: A LITERARY AND HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION - 61
    • The Question of Genre - 62
    • Biography as a Greco-Roman Genre - 62
      ... Box 4.1 Plutarch on Biography - 63
    • The Gospels as Ancient Biographies - 64
    • ... Box 4.2 The Christian Gospels - 65
  5. JESUS, THE SUFFERING SON OF GOD: THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MARK - 67
    • The Beginning of the Gospel: Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God Who Fulfils the Scripture - 68
      ... Box 5.1 The Jewish Messiah - 68
    • Jesus the Authoritative Son of God - 70
    • Jesus the Opposed Son of God - 71
      ... Box 5.2 Jewish Scribes, Pharisees, Herodians, Sadducees, and Chief Priests - 71
      ... Box 5.3 Jesus' Opponents in Mark - 72
    • Jesus the Misunderstood Son of God - 74
    • Jesus the Acknowledged Son of God - 74
      ... Box 5.4 The Messianic Secret in Mark - 75
    • Jesus the Suffering Son of God - 76
      ... Box 5.5 Son of God and Son of Man - 77
    • Jesus the Crucified Son of God - 78
      ... Box 5.6 The Charge of Blasphemy according to Mark - 79
    • Jesus the Vindicated Son of God - 79
    • Conclusion: Mark and His Readers - 80
      ... Box 5.7 The Gospel of Mark - 82
  6. THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR INTERPRETATION - 83
    • Methods for Studying the Gospels - 83
    • The Synoptic Problem - 84
      ... Box 6.1 Ironing Out the Problems: One Potential Difficulty in Mark's Account - 87
      ... Box 6.2 The Contents of Q - 88
    • The Methodological Significance of the Four-Source Hypothesis - 89
      ... Box 6.3 The Synoptic Problem 90
  7. JESUS, THE JEWISH MESSIAH: THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW - 92
    • The Importance of Beginnings: Jesus the Jewish Messiah in Fulfilment of the Jewish Scriptures - 93
      ... Box 7.1 Matthew's Scheme of Fourteen - 95
      ... Box 7.2 The Women in Matthew's Genealogy - 97
    • Jesus and His Forerunner from Matthew's Perspective - 98
    • The Portrayal of Jesus in Matthew: The Sermon on the Mount as a Springboard - 100
      ... Box 7.3 The Golden Rule - 103
    • Jesus and the Jewish Cultic Practices Prescribed by the Law - 104
    • Jesus Rejected by the Jewish Leaders - 105
      ... Box 7.4 Gentiles in Matthew's Community - 106
    • Matthew and His Readers - 108
      ... Box 7.5 Was Matthew a Jew? - 109
      ... Box 7.6 Matthew 110
  8. JESUS, THE SAVIOR OF THE WORLD: THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO LUKE - 112
    • The Comparative Method and the Gospel of Luke - 113
    • A Comparative Overview of the Gospel - 114
    • The Preface to Luke's Gospel - 114
      ... Box 8.1 Apologetic Literature in Early Christianity - 116
    • Luke's Birth Narrative in Comparative Perspective - 117
      ... Box 8.2 Historical Problems with Luke's Birth Narrative - 118
      ... Box 8.3 The Virginal Conception in Matthew and Luke - 119
    • From Jew to Gentile: Luke's Portrayal of Jesus the Rejected Prophet - 122
    • Luke's Distinctive Emphases throughout His Gospel - 123
      ... Box 8.4 Jesus' Bloody Sweat in Luke - 124
      ... Box 8.5 Jesus as a Righteous Martyr - 125
      ... Box 8.6 The Institution of the Lord's Supper in Luke - 128
    • Conclusion: Luke in Comparative Perspective - 129
      ... Box 8.7 Luke 130
  9. LUKE'S SECOND VOLUME: THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES 132
    • The Genre of Acts and Its Significance - 133
      ... Box 9.1 The Book of Acts: An Ancient Novel? - 134
    • The Thematic Approach to Acts - 135
    • From Gospel to Acts: The Opening Transition - 135
      ... Box 9.2 Luke's Mysterious Two Men - 137
      ... Box 9.3 Luke's Artistry as a Storyteller 1 - 138
      ... Box 9.4 Luke's Artistry as a Storyteller 2 - 139
    • Themes in the Speeches in Acts - 139
      ... Box 9.5 The Death of Judas - 141
      ... Box 9.6 Christianity before Paul - 147
      ... Box 9.7 The Book of Acts - 148
    • Excursus: The Author of Luke-Acts and His Audience - 149
    • Conclusion: The Author and His Themes in Context - 151
  10. JESUS, THE MAN SENT FROM HEAVEN: THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO JOHN - 154
    • The Gospel of John from a Literary-Historical Perspective - 155
      ... Box 10.1 Jesus' Signs in the Fourth Gospel - 156
      ... Box 10.2 "The Jews" in the Fourth Gospel - 157
    • The Gospel of John from a Thematic Perspective - 158
    • The Gospel of John from a Comparative Perspective - 158
      ... Box 10.3 Signs and Faith in the Fourth Gospel - 161
      ... Box 10.4 Jesus and the "I Am" Sayings in John - 162
    • The Gospel of John from a Redactional Perspective - 163
    • The Socio-Historical Method - 167
      ... Box 10.5 The Death of the Beloved Disciple in the Johannine Community - 167
    • The Gospel of John from a Socio-Historical Perspective - 168
      ... Box 10.6 John's De-Apocalypticized Gospel - 173
    • The Author of the Fourth Gospel - 174
      ... Box 10.7 The Gospel of John - 174
  11. FROM JOHN'S JESUS TO THE GNOSTIC CHRIST: THE JOHANNINE EPISTLES AND BEYOND 176
    • The Questions of Genre and Author - 177
      ... Box 11.1 A Letter from Greco-Roman Egypt - 178
    • The New Testament Epistolary Literature and the Contextual Method - 179
      ... Box 11.2 The Gospel and Epistles of John: Some Thematic Similarities - 180
    • The Johannine Epistles from a Contextual Perspective - 181
    • Reflections on the Contextual Method - 183
      ... Box 11.3 House Churches in Early Christianity - 184
      ... Box 11.4 The Johannine Epistles - 185
    • Beyond the Johannine Community: The Rise of Christian Gnosticism - 185
      ... Box 11.5 How Do You Know a Gnostic When You See One? - 188
      ... Box 11.6 Gnostics and the Jewish Scriptures - 190
    • Gnostics and the Johannine Community - 192
      ... Box 11.7 Gnosticism 193
  12. JESUS FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: OTHER GOSPELS IN EARLY CHRISTIANITY - 195
    • Narrative Gospels - 196
      ... Box 12.1 The Gospel of the Ebionites and Early Gospel Harmonies - 198
    • Sayings Gospels - 201
      ... Box 12.2 Judas Thomas as Jesus' Twin Brother - 202
      ... Box 12.3 The Older Sayings of the Gospel of Thomas - 205
    • Infancy Gospels - 207
    • Conclusion: The Other Gospels - 208
      ... Box 12.4 The Other Gospels - 208
  13. THE HISTORICAL JESUS: SOURCES, PROBLEMS, AND METHODS - 210
    • Problems with Sources - 211
    • Non-Christian Sources - 211
      ... Box 13.1 Christianity as a Superstition in the Roman World - 213
      ... Box 13.2 The Testimony of Flavius Josephus - 214
    • Christian Sources - 215
    • Using Our Sources: Some of the Basic Rules of Thumb - 217
    • Specific Criteria and Their Rationale - 218
      ... Box 13.3 Aramaisms as a Criterion of Authenticity - 219
    • Conclusion: Reconstructing the Life of Jesus - 223
      ... Box 13.4 The Sources for the Historical Jesus - 223
  14. EXCURSUS: THE HISTORIAN AND THE PROBLEM OF MIRACLE - 225
    • Miracles in the Modern World and in Antiquity - 226
    • The Historian and Historical Method - 227
      ... Box 14.1 The Problem of Miracles - 229
  15. JESUS IN CONTEXT 231
    • Political Crises in Palestine and Their Ramifications - 232
      ... Box 15.1 Flavius Josephus - 233
    • The Formation of Jewish Sects - 235
      ... Box 15.2 Divine Revelation in the Dead Sea Scrolls - 238
    • Popular Modes of Resistance to Oppression - 241
    • An Ideology of Resistance - 244
      ... Box 15.3 Prophecy and Apocalypticism - 247
    • Jesus in His Apocalyptic Context - 248
      ... Box 15.4 First-Century Palestinian Judaism - 248
  16. JESUS, THE APOCALYPTIC PROPHET - 250
    • Considering the Rules of Thumb - 250
    • Considering the Specific Criteria - 251
      ... Box 16.1 O Little Town of Nazareth - 252
      ... Box 16.2 Jesus of Sepphoris? - 254
    • The Beginning and End as Keys to the Middle - 255
    • The Apocalyptic Deeds of Jesus - 256
      ... Box 16.3 Explaining Away the Apocalyptic Traditions: Seeking the Lost - 257
      ... Box 16.4 Explaining Away the Apocalyptic Traditions: Setting a Date - 258
      ... Box 16.5 Was Jesus a Cynic Philosopher? - 259
      ... Box 16.6 The Temple Incident as an Enacted Parable - 260
      ... Box 16.7 Another Apocalyptic Jesus - 263
    • The Apocalyptic Teachings of Jesus - 264
      ... Box 16.8 The Cosmic Deliverer of Israel - 267
      ... Box 16.9 Jesus and "Family Values" - 269
    • The Apocalyptic Death of Jesus - 270
      ... Box 16.10 Jesus and Judas, the Betrayer - 272
      ... Box 16.11 Jesus the Apocalyptic Prophet - 272
  17. FROM JESUS TO THE GOSPELS - 274
    • The Beginning of Christianity - 275
    • Jesus' Resurrection from an Apocalyptic Perspective - 276
      ... Box 17.1 The Women and the Empty Tomb - 277
      ... Box 17.2 Jesus, the Messiah, and the Resurrection - 278
    • Jesus' Death, according to the Scriptures - 279
    • The Emergence of Different Understandings of Jesus - 280
      ... Box 17.3 Vicarious Suffering in Jewish Martyrologies and Other Greco-Roman Literature - 281
      ... Box 17.4 From Jesus to the Gospels - 283
  18. PAUL THE APOSTLE: THE MAN AND HIS MISSION - 285
    • The Study of Paul: Methodological Difficulties - 286
      ... Box 18.1 The Pauline Corpus - 287
      ... Box 18.2 Other Sources for the Life of Paul - 290
    • The Life of Paul - 291
      ... Box 18.3 Paul on the Road to Damascus - 295
      ... Box 18.4 Paul and His Mission - 300
  19. PAUL AND HIS APOSTOLIC MISSION: 1 THESSALONIANS AS A TEST CASE - 302
    • The Founding of the Church in Thessalonica - 303
    • The Beginnings of the Thessalonian Church: A Socio-Historical Perspective - 308
      ... Box 19.1 Rules for a Private Association - 310
    • The Church at Thessalonica after Paul's Departure - 311
      ... Box 19.2 Christians Maligned as Perverts and Criminals - 313
      ... Box 19.3 The Thessalonians' Perplexity - 314
    • Conclusion: Paul the Apostle - 314
      ... Box 19.4 Thessalonians - 315
  20. PAUL AND THE CRISES OF HIS CHURCHES: 1 AND 2 CORINTHIANS, GALATIANS, PHILIPPIANS, AND PHILEMON - 316
    • 1 Corinthians - 316
      ... Box 20.1 Possibilities of Existence in the Afterlife1 - 323
      ... Box 20.2 1 Corinthians - 326
    • 2 Corinthians - 326
      ... Box 20.3 The Partitioning of 2 Corinthians - 329
      ... Box 20.4 2 Corinthians - 331
    • Galatians - 331
      ... Box 20.5 The Logic of the Opponents' Position in Galatia - 334
      ... Box 20.6 Cephas and Peter - 335
      ... Box 20.7 Why Does Paul Appeal to the Law to Dispute This View of the Law? - 336
      ... Box 20.8 Galatians - 339
    • Philippians - 340
      ... Box 20.9 The Christ Hymn of Philippians - 342
      ... Box 20.10 Was Paul Contemplating Suicide? - 343
      ... Box 20.11 Philippians - 344
    • Philemon - 344
      ... Box 20.12 Philemon - 347
  21. THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO PAUL: THE LETTER TO THE ROMANS - 348
    • The Occasion and Purpose of the Letter - 349
      ... Box 21.1 The Beginnings of the Roman Church - 350
    • The Theme of the Epistle - 351
      ... Box 21.2 Paul's Gospel to the Romans - 352
    • Pauline Models for Salvation - 353
      ... Box 21.3 Two Different Ways of Salvation in Paul? - 354
      ... Box 21.4 Judicial and Participationist Models of Salvation in Paul - 357
    • The Flow of Paul's Argument - 358
      ... Box 21.5 Other Models of Salvation in Paul - 359
    • Conclusion: Paul and the Romans - 360
      ... Box 21.6 Romans - 360
  22. DOES THE TRADITION MISCARRY? PAUL IN RELATION TO JESUS, JAMES, THECLA, AND THEUDAS - 362
    • Paul in Relation to What Came Before - 363
      ... Box 22.1 Jesus and Paul: Some of the Similarities - 365
      ... Box 22.2 Jesus and Paul: Some of the Differences - 366
    • Paul in Relation to What Came After - 367
    • Conclusion: Pauline Christianities - 370
      ... Box 22.3 Paul in Relation to What Came Before and After - 371
  23. IN THE WAKE OF THE APOSTLE: THE DEUTERO-PAULINE AND PASTORAL EPISTLES - 372
    • Pseudonymity in the Ancient World - 373
      ... Box 23.1 Paul's Third Letter to the Corinthians - 374
    • The Deutero-Pauline Epistles - 376
      ... Box 23.2 The Resurrection of Believers in Paul and Colossians - 379
      ... Box 23.3 The "Household Rules" in Colossians and Ephesians - 380
      ... Box 23.4 The Vocabulary of Salvation in Paul and Ephesians - 383
      ... Box 23.5 The Deutero-Pauline Epistles - 385
    • The Pastoral Epistles - 385
    • The Historical Situation and Authorship of the Pastoral Epistles - 388
      ... Box 23.6 Church Hierarchy in Ignatius - 392
    • Conclusion: The Post-Pauline Pastoral Epistles - 393
      ... Box 23.7 The Pastoral Epistles - 394
  24. FROM PAUL'S FEMALE COLLEAGUES TO THE PASTOR'S INTIMIDATED WOMEN: THE OPPRESSION OF WOMEN IN EARLY CHRISTIANITY - 395
    • Women in Paul's Churches - 396
    • Women Associated with Jesus - 397
      ... Box 24.1 Mary Magdalane - 398
    • Paul's Understanding of Women in the Church - 400
    • Women in the Aftermath of Paul - 401
      ... Box 24.2 Similarities between 1 Tim 2:11-15 and 1 Cor 14:34-35 - 402
    • Ancient Ideologies of Gender - 403
    • Gender Ideology and the Pauline Churches - 405
      ... Box 24.3 Women in Early Christianity - 406
  25. CHRISTIANS AND JEWS: HEBREWS, BARNABAS, AND LATER ANTI-JEWISH LITERATURE - 408
    • Early Christian Self-Definition - 409
      ... Box 25.1 Early and Diverging Views of Christians and Jews - 410
    • Continuity and Superiority: The Epistle to the Hebrews - 411
      ... Box 25.2 Divergent Views of Christ in Hebrews - 413
      ... Box 25.3 Hebrews - 417
    • Discontinuity and Supremacy: The Epistle of Barnabas - 418
      ... Box 25.4 Six Thousand Years and Counting - 420
      ... Box 25.5 Gematria in Early Christianity - 421
      ... Box 25.6 The Epistle of Barnabas - 421
    • Conclusion: The Rise of Christian Anti-Judaism - 422
      ... Box 25.7 Melito's Passover Sermon - 424
  26. CHRISTIANS AND PAGANS: 1 PETER, THE LETTERS OF IGNATIUS, THE MARTYRDOM OF POLYCARP, AND LATER APOLOGETIC LITERATURE - 426
    • The Persecution of the Early Christians - 426
      ... Box 26.1 The Christian Disruption of the Family: The Case of Perpetua - 429
    • Christians in a Hostile World: The Letter of 1 Peter - 431
      ... Box 26.2 The Spread of Christianity - 432
      ... Box 26.3 1 Peter - 436
    • Christians Sentenced to Death: The Letters of Ignatius - 436
      ... Box 26.4 An Alternative View of Christian Martyrdom - 438
      ... Box 26.5 The Letters of Ignatius - 440
    • Christians before the Tribunal: The Martyrdom of Polycarp - 440
      ... Box 26.6 The Martyrdom of Polycarp - 441
    • Christians on the Defense: The Later Apologetic Literature - 442
  27. CHRISTIANS AND CHRISTIANS: JAMES, THE DIDACHE, POLYCARP, 1 CLEMENT, JUDE, AND 2 PETER - 445
    • The Epistle of James - 446
    • The Didache - 447
      ... Box 27.1 The Development of the Lord's Prayer - 449
    • Polycarp's Letter to the Philippians - 450
      ... Box 27.2 Polycarp and the Early Christian Tradition - 452
    • 1 Clement - 453
      ... Box 27.3 Birds Raised from the Dead and Other Problems in the Corinthian Church - 455
    • Jude - 455
    • 2 Peter - 456
      ... Box 27.4 Peter, the Smoked Tuna, and the Flying Heretic - 457
    • Conclusion: Conflicts within the Early Christian Communities - 458
      ... Box 27.5 Christian Internal Conflicts - 459
  28. CHRISTIANS AND THE COSMOS: THE REVELATION OF JOHN, THE SHEPHERD OF HERMAS, AND THE APOCALYPSE OF PETER - 461
    • Introduction: The End of the World and the Revelation of John - 461
    • The Content and Structure of the Book of Revelation - 462
    • The Book of Revelation from a Historical Perspective - 464
    • Apocalyptic Worldviews and Apocalypse Genre - 464
      ... Box 28.1 The Book of Revelation as Underground Literature - 466
      ... Box 28.2 The Author of Revelation in the Early Church - 467
    • The Revelation of John in Historical Context - 468
      ... Box 28.3 Futuristic Interpretations of the Book of Revelation - 471
      ... Box 28.4 The Book of Revelation - 474
    • The Shepherd of Hermas - 474
      ... Box 28.5 The Shepherd of Hermas and the Muratorian Canon - 475
    • The Apocalypse of Peter - 476
  29. EPILOGUE: DO WE HAVE THE ORIGINAL NEW TESTAMENT? - 479
    • The Manuscripts of the New Testament - 479
    • Changes in the New Testament Text - 481
      ... Box 29.1 Citing Chapter and Verse - 482
      ... Box 29.2 Women in the Manuscript Tradition of the New Testament - 484
    • Criteria for Establishing the Original Text - 485
    • Conclusion: The Original Text of the New Testament - 487
      ... Box 29.3 The Text of the New Testament - 488
MAPS, TIME LINES, AND DIAGRAMS
  1. MAPS
    • Frontmatter - The Roman Empire: Central and Eastern Provinces - xxxiv
    • Figure 2.2 - The Journeys of Alexander the Great - 22
    • Figure 2.7 - The Spread of Roman Rule - 32
    • Figure 3.2 - Christian Churches in Existence by 100 C.E. - 50
    • Figure 5.2 - Palestine in New Testament Times - 73
    • Figure 9.1 - Paul's Missionary Journeys according to the Book of Acts - 136
    • Figure 16.1 - Jerusalem in the First Century C.E. - 261
    • Figure 18.2 - Places Associated with Paul in the New Testament - 297
    • Figure 20.5 - The Roman Province of Galatia in the Midst of Asia Minor - 332
    • Figure 26.1 - The Distribution of Christianity by 300 C.E. - 435
    • Figure 28.1 - The Seven Churches of Asia Minor - 462
  2. TIME LINES AND DIAGRAMS
    • Frontmatter - Master Time Line - xxxi
    • Figure 2.3 - The Divine Pyramid - 24
    • Figure 2.9 - Time Line of Keys Events in Hellenistic and Roman Times - 35
    • Figure 3.1 - Time Line of the Early Christian Movement - 49
    • Figure 6.1 - The Four-Source Hypothesis - 85
    • Figure 10.3 - Sources in the Farewell Discourse - 166
    • Figure 15.2 - Time Line of Key Events in the History of Palestine - 235

Text Colour Conventions (see disclaimer)

  1. Blue: Text by me; © Theo Todman, 2018
  2. Mauve: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); © the author(s)



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