<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Plantinga (Alvin) - The Nature of Necessity: Preliminary Distinctions and Remarks (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_16/PaperSummary_16101.htm">The Nature of Necessity: Preliminary Distinctions and Remarks</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/P/Author_Plantinga (Alvin).htm">Plantinga (Alvin)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Plantinga - The Nature of Necessity, Chapter 1; pp. 1-14 (14)</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=200><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_16/PaperSummary_16101.htm">Paper Summary</A></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Oxford Scholarship On-Line</U> <FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1">I clarify the notion of necessity that I will be examining in the book. In the first section , I claim that the relevant notion of necessity is  broad logical necessity , which I distinguish from causal necessity, unrevisability and a proposition being self-evident or a priori. In the second section, I distinguish between <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>1</SUP> de dicto and <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>2</SUP> de re. An assertion of <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>3</SUP> de dicto predicates a <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>4</SUP> property of another dictum or proposition, while a claim of <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>5</SUP> de re asserts of an object that it possess a property either essentially or contingently. I conclude by examining the use of the de dicto / de re distinction in the works of Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas, G.E. Moore, and Norman Malcolm. </ol></FONT><U>Contents</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Necessity Circumscribed  1</li><li><a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">Modality</A><SUP>6</SUP> de ditto and <a name="7"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">Modality</A><SUP>7</SUP> de re  9</li></ol></FONT><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-03T00:12" pubdate>03/08/2018 00:12:54</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>