<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Davies (Brian) - Philosophy of Religion: A Guide and Anthology (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_16/PaperSummary_16446.htm">Philosophy of Religion: A Guide and Anthology</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/D/Author_Davies (Brian).htm">Davies (Brian)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Davies (Brian) - Philosophy of Religion: A Guide and Anthology</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=400><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_16/PaperSummary_16446.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Preface</U> (Full Text) <FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>How should we define  philosophy of religion ? The task is not an easy one. We could say that it is  philosophy as applied to religious belief . But we would then need to recognize that definitions of  philosophy and  religion vary.  What is philosophy? and  What is religion? are questions to which different people give surprisingly different answers.</li><li>Yet philosophy of religion is now a thriving branch of philosophy. Many people currently describe themselves as students or teachers of the subject. And the literature devoted to it swells daily. Even if it is hard to say what philosophy of religion is exactly, there is no denying that it is currently very big business  every bit as big as, for example, philosophy of mind, philosophy of logic, or philosophy of language (phrases which also defy swift definition).</li><li>A good way to understand what philosophy of religion amounts to is to examine what would commonly be taken to be standard examples of it. And this is what this book aims to help you do. Most of it consists of extracts from the writings of various philosophers. So it is first and foremost an anthology. But it is more than that. For it also contains a lot of material setting its extracts in context and guiding readers through them. Taken as a whole, the volume amounts to a self-contained introduction to philosophy of religion, one which can be used both by readers working on their own and by students working under guidance.</li><li>In order to provide a helpful balance, I have selected extracts from authors of very different persuasions and philosophical traditions. In the source details at the start of each chapter, * indicates those extracts that have been edited by me, with the approval of the author. Since philosophers have reflected on religion for centuries, and since some of the most interesting and influential philosophy of religion comes from authors writing before the twentieth century, many of the extracts are from what one might call  classical rather than  contemporary sources. In so far as this volume allows readers to explore the  classical as well as the  contemporary , it should help them to get a sense of what philosophy of religion has been and of how it has come to be the way it is today.</li><li>I should add that I have tried, throughout my own text, to avoid gender-specific reference to God. In some instances, however, I have used  he /  his simply to avoid awkwardness in wording.</li></ol></FONT><BR><U>Contents</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1">Notes on Contributors  xv<BR>General introduction  1<BR>Advice on further reading  11<BR><B>Part I Philosophy and religious belief</B><BR>Introduction  17<li>Thomas Aquinas: Faith and reason in harmony  25</li><li>W. K. Clifford: The ethics of belief  31</li><li>Antony Flew: The presumption of atheism  36</li><li>Alvin Plantinga: Religious belief as  properly basic  42</li><li>Norman Kretzmann: Evidence and religious belief  95</li><li>D. Z. Phillips: Grammar and religious belief  108</li><li>Norman Malcolm: The groundlessness of religious belief  115<BR>Questions for discussion  123<BR>Advice on further reading  124<BR><B>Part II The problem of God-Talk</B><BR>Introduction  129</li><li>Augustine of Hippo: How believers find God-Talk puzzling  141 </li><li>A. J. Ayer: God-Talk is evidently nonsense  143 </li><li>Richard Swinburne: God-Talk is not evidently nonsense  147 </li><li>Antony Flew:  Death by a thousand qualifications  153 </li><li>Thomas Aquinas: One way of understanding God-Talk  156 <BR>Questions for discussion  168<BR>Advice on further reading  169<BR><B>Part III Arguments for God s existence</B><BR>Introduction  175<BR>Advice on further reading  177<BR><B>Cosmological arguments</B><BR>Introduction  179</li><li>Anselm of Canterbury: A concise cosmological argument from the eleventh century  186</li><li>Thomas Aquinas: A thirteenth-century cosmological argument  188</li><li>John Duns Scotus: A fourteenth-century cosmological argument  191</li><li>Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: A seventeenth-century cosmological argument  194</li><li>Herbert McCabe: A modern cosmological argument  196</li><li>Paul Edwards: Objections to cosmological arguments  202</li><li>J. L. Mackie: More objections to cosmological arguments  213</li><li>David Hume: Why is a cause always necessary?  230</li><li>G. E. M. Anscombe:  Whatever has a beginning of existence must have a cause  233</li><li>James A. Sadowsky: Can there be an endless regress of causes?  239<BR>Questions for discussion  242<BR>Advice on further reading  243<BR><B>Design arguments</B><BR>Introduction 245</li><li>Thomas Aquinas: Is the world ruled by providence?  251</li><li>William Paley: An especially famous design argument  253</li><li>David Hume: We cannot know that the world is designed by God  260</li><li>Immanuel Kant: The limits of design arguments  271</li><li>R. G. Swinburne: God, regularity, and David Hume  274</li><li>Robert Hambourger: Can design arguments be defended today?  286<BR>Questions for discussion  301<BR>Advice on further reading  302<BR><B>Logical arguments</B><BR>introduction  304</li><li>Anselm of Canterbury: Anselm argues that God cannot be thought not to exist  311</li><li>Gaunilo of Marmoutiers: Gaunilo argues that Anselm is wrong  313</li><li>Anselm of Canterbury: Anselm replies to Gaunilo  318</li><li>Rene Descartes: Descartes defends an ontological argument  327</li><li>Rene Descartes, Pierre Gassendi, Johannes Caterus: Descartes replies to critics  330</li><li>Immanuel Kant: A classic repudiation of ontological arguments  337</li><li>Alvin Plantinga: A contemporary defence of ontological arguments  342<BR>Questions for discussion  353<BR>Advice on further reading  354<BR><B>God and human experience</B><BR>Introduction  356</li><li>C. B. Martin: Why  knowing God by experience is a notion open to question  362 </li><li>Peter Donovan: Can we know God by experience?  370 </li><li>William P. Alston: Why should there not be experience of God?  382 <BR>Questions for discussion  387<BR>Advice on further reading  388<BR><B>Part IV What is God? </B><BR>Introduction  393<BR>Advice on further reading  395<BR><B>Omnipotent</B><BR>Introduction  397</li><li>Thomas V. Morris: A modern discussion of divine omnipotence  402</li><li>Thomas Aquinas: Why think of God as omnipotent?  415</li><li>Richard Swinburne: Miracles and laws of nature  422</li><li>David Hume: Why we should disbelieve in miracles  430<BR>Questions for discussion  436<BR>Advice on further reading  437<BR><B>Knowing</B><BR>Introduction  439</li><li>Thomas Aquinas: Why ascribe knowledge to God?  446 </li><li>Boethius: Omniscience and human freedom: a classic discussion  456 </li><li>Nelson Pike: Problems for the notion of divine omniscience  465 <BR>Questions for discussion  473<BR>Advice on further reading  474<BR><B>Eternal</B><BR>Introduction  476</li><li>Thomas Aquinas: Why call God  eternal ?  482</li><li>Nicholas Wolterstorff: God is  everlasting , not  eternal  485</li><li>Eleanore Stump and Norman Kretzmann: A modern defence of divine eternity  505</li><li>Paul Helm: A different modern defence of divine eternity  519<BR>Questions for discussion  531<BR>Advice on further reading  532<BR><B>Simple</B><BR>Introduction  533</li><li>Thomas Aquinas: A classic defence of divine simplicity  539</li><li>Thomas V. Morris: Problems with divine simplicity  545</li><li>Brian Davies: A modern defence of divine simplicity  549<BR>Questions for discussion  565<BR>Advice on further reading  566<BR><B>Part V The problem of evil</B><BR>Introduction  571</li><li>J. L. Mackie: Evil shows that there is no God  581</li><li>Augustine of Hippo: What is evil?  592</li><li>Richard Swinburne: Evil does not show that there is no God  599</li><li>Herbert McCabe: God, evil, and divine responsibility  614</li><li>Thomas Aquinas: God and human freedom  625<BR>Questions for discussion  628<BR>Advice on further reading  629<BR><B>Part VI Morality and religion</B><BR>Introduction  633</li><li>Immanuel Kant: God as a  postulate of sound moral thinking  639 </li><li>H. P. Owen: Why morality implies the existence of God  646 </li><li>Illtyd Trethowan: Moral thinking as awareness of God  659 </li><li>Kai Nielsen: Morality does not imply the existence of God  668 <BR>Questions for discussion  682<BR>Advice on further reading  683<BR><B>Part VII People and <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_978.htm">life after death</A><SUP>1</SUP></B><BR>Introduction  687</li><li>Steven T. Davis: Philosophy and <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_978.htm">life after death</A><SUP>2</SUP>: the questions and the options  691 </li><li>Plato: <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_978.htm">Life after death</A><SUP>3</SUP>: an ancient Greek view  708 </li><li>Bertrand Russell: Belief in <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_978.htm">life after death</A><SUP>4</SUP> comes from emotion, not reason  721 </li><li>Peter Geach: What must be true of me if I survive my death?  724 <BR>Questions for discussion  732<BR>Advice on further reading  733<BR>Index  735</li></ol> </FONT><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T08:31" pubdate>02/08/2018 08:31:07</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>