<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Oppy (Graham) - Ontological Arguments and Belief in God: Literature Notes (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_16/PaperSummary_16726.htm">Ontological Arguments and Belief in God: Literature Notes</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/O/Author_Oppy (Graham).htm">Oppy (Graham)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Oppy (Graham) - Ontological Arguments and Belief in God, Literature Notes</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=400><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_16/PaperSummary_16726.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">This long chapter is parallel to the rest of the book, and contains the notes and a literature review. So, if you want to know where else to look to find out more on the various aspects of the ontological argument, this is the place to look. <BR><BR><U>Contents</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1">Preface<BR>Introduction<li><B>Some historical considerations</B><BR>(1) Historical synopsis <BR>(2) St. Anselm's arguments <BR>& (a) Chapter 2 of the Proslogion <BR>& (b) Chapter 3 of the Proslogion <BR>& (c) Further chapters of the Proslogion <BR>& (d) Gaunilo's objection and St. Anselm's reply <BR>(3) Descartes' arguments <BR>(4) Leibniz's contribution to the arguments <BR>(5) Hume's objections <BR>(6) Kant's objections <BR>& (a) No existence claims are analytic <BR>& (b) Existence is not a predicate <BR>& (c) No negative existentials are self-contradictory <BR>(7) The logical positivist critique <BR>(8) Concluding remarks </li><li><B>Definitional arguments</B> <BR>(1) Begging the question </li><li><B>Conceptual arguments</B> </li><li><B><a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">Modal</A><SUP>1</SUP> arguments</B> <BR>(1) <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">Modal</A><SUP>2</SUP> arguments involving actuality <BR>(2) <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">Modal</A><SUP>3</SUP> arguments involving necessity <BR>(3) <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">Modal</A><SUP>4</SUP> arguments involving explicability <BR>(4) <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">Modal</A><SUP>5</SUP> arguments involving incomprehensibility </li><li><B>Meinongian arguments</B> </li><li><B>Experiential arguments</B> </li><li><B>"Hegelian" arguments</B> <BR>(1) The neo-Kantian argument <BR>(2) The neo-Platonic argument <BR>(3) Haight's argument </li><li><B>Application to historical arguments</B> <BR>(1) The argument from Proslogion 2 <BR>(2) The argument from Proslogion 3 <BR>(3) The Cartesian argument <BR>(4) General remarks: the general objection </li><li><B>Are there (other) global objections to ontological arguments? </B> <BR>(1) The missing explanation argument <BR>(2) The Thomistic objections <BR>(3) The use of singular terms <BR>(4) Further attempts </li><li><B>Is existence a predicate? </B> <BR>(1) Real predicates <BR>(2) Attempted defenses 1: propositions and singular terms <BR>& (a) All genuine propositions are about their subjects <BR>& (b) All genuine singular terms refer <BR>& (c) All genuine singular terms purport to refer <BR>& (d) There are no genuine singular terms <BR>(3) Attempted defenses 2: existence <BR>& (a) Existence is a second-order predicate <BR>& (b) Existence is a quantifier  <BR>& (c) Existence does not admit of analysis <BR>& (d) Existence is not a property <BR>(4) (Maybe) existence is a predicate </li><li><B>The uses of parody</B> <BR>(1) Beings of kind K than which no greater beings of kind K can be conceived <BR>(2) Most perfect beings of kind K <BR>(3) Necessarily existent beings of kind K <BR>(4) Actually existent beings of kind K <BR>(5) Maximal beings of kind K <BR>(6) Devils, and so on <BR>(7) What does parody show? </li><li><B>Are ontological arguments of any use to theists and/or atheists? </B> <BR>(1) The rationality of theistic belief <BR>(2) The irrationality of nontheistic belief <BR>(3) The absolute security of theistic belief <BR>Conclusion </li></ol></FONT><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-03T00:12" pubdate>03/08/2018 00:12:26</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>