Modern Brazilian Portuguese Grammar: A Practical Guide
Whitlam (John)
Source: Whitlam (John) - Modern Brazilian Portuguese Grammar: A Practical Guide
Paper - Abstract

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Contents

    Introduction 1
    Glossary of grammatical terms 3

    Part A – Structures
  1. Pronunciation and spelling – 11
    1.1 The Portuguese alphabet 11
    1.2 Consonant sounds 11
    1.3 Oral vowel sounds 13
    1.4 Nasal vowel sounds 14
    1.5 Spelling and pronunciation 15
    1.6 Syllabification 16
    1.7 Stress and written accents 17
    1.8 Hyphenation 19
    1.9 Use of capital letters 20
    1.10 Punctuation 21
  2. Gender and gender agreement – 22
    2.1 What is grammatical gender? 22
    2.2 Rules for determining gender 22
    2.3 Feminine forms of nouns and adjectives 25
  3. Number and number agreement – 27
    3.1 Singular vs. plural 27
    3.2 Forming the plural of nouns and adjectives 27
    3.3 Plurals referring collectively to males and females 29
    3.4 Use of singular and plural 30
    3.5 Countability 31
  4. Articles – 32
    4.1 The definite article 32
    4.2 The indefinite article 35
  5. Adjectives and adverbs – 38
    5.1 Position of adjectives 38
    5.2 Adjectives that always precede the noun 38
    5.3 Adjectives with different meanings according to their position 39
    5.4 Adjectives used as nouns 41
    5.5 Adjectives used as adverbs 42
    5.6 Formation of adverbs of manner 43
    5.7 Position of adverbs and adverbials 43
    5.8 Comparison of adjectives and adverbs 44
    5.9 Irregular comparative forms 44
    5.10 The syntax of comparative sentences 45
    5.11 The absolute superlative 46
    5.12 Colloquial intensifiers 47
  6. Numbers and numerical expressions – 48
    6.1 Cardinal numbers 48
    6.2 Ordinal numbers 49
    6.3 Collective numbers 50
    6.4 Dates 51
    6.5 Clock time 51
    6.6 Fractions 53
    6.7 Decimal fractions 53
    6.8 Percentages 53
    6.9 Monetary amounts 54
    6.10 Monarchs, popes, etc. 54
  7. Personal pronouns – 55
    7.1 First person pronouns 55
    7.2 You 56
    7.3 Third person pronouns 58
    7.4 Use of subject pronouns 60
    7.5 Placement of unstressed object pronouns 61
    7.6 More about indirect pronoun objects 65
    7.7 Pronouns used with prepositions 66
    7.8 Emphatic uses of object pronouns 66
    7.9 Non-standard pronouns 67
    7.10 Brazilian personal pronoun usage - quick reference tables 68
  8. Demonstratives – 70
    8.1 Introduction 70
    8.2 Forms and meaning 70
    8.3 Usage 70
    8.4 Neuter demonstrative pronouns 72
    8.5 Demonstrative adverbs ‘here' and ‘there' 73
  9. Possessives – 75
    9.1 Introduction 75
    9.2 Forms 75
    9.3 Usage 75
    9.4 Omission of possessives 77
    9.5 próprio ‘own' 78
    9.6 Possessives after the verb ser ‘to be' 78
    9.7 The second person possessive teu(s) / tua(s) 78
    9.8 Special use of the possessive seu(s) / sua(s) 79
  10. Relative pronouns – 80
    10.1 que 80
    10.2 quem 80
    10.3 o que 81
    10.4 o / a qual, os / as quais 81
    10.5 cujo(s), cuja(s) 82
    10.6 quanto(s) / quanta(s) 82
    10.7 onde 83
    10.8 Note on translating ‘when' as a relative 83
  11. Interrogatives – 84
    11.1 o que 84
    11.2 que 84
    11.3 qual, quais 84
    11.4 quem 85
    11.5 quanto(s) / quanta(s) 86
    11.6 como 86
    11.7 onde 87
    11.8 quando 87
    11.9 por que 88
    11.10 para que 88
    11.11 quão 88
    11.12 Other points about interrogatives 88
  12. Exclamations – 91
    12.1 que 91
    12.2 quanto(s) / quanta(s) 91
    12.3 como 91
  13. Indefinite adjectives and pronouns – 93
    13.1 todo(s) / toda(s) 93
    13.2 tudo 94
    13.3 ambos / as 95
    13.4 cada 96
    13.5 qualquer 96
    13.6 alguem 97
    13.7 algum / alguma, alguns / algumas 97
    13.8 alguma coisa 98
    13.9 algo 98
    13.10 outro(s) / outra(s) 98
    13.11 tal 99
    13.12 Adjectives and pronouns of quantity 100
    13.13 Other indefinite adjectives and pronouns 102
    13.14 ‘Else' 103
  14. Negatives – 104
    14.1 não 104
    14.2 nada 105
    14.3 ninguém 105
    14.4 nunca 106
    14.5 jamais 106
    14.6 nem 106
    14.7 nenhum / nenhuma 107
    14.8 sem 107
  15. Regular verb conjugations – 109
    15.1 Introduction to Portuguese verbs: how the system works 109
    15.2 The infinitive and the stem 109
    15.3 Simple tenses: present indicative 110
    15.4 Simple tenses: imperfect indicative 110
    15.5 Simple tenses: preterite indicative 111
    15.6 Simple tenses: present subjunctive 111
    15.7 Simple tenses: imperfect subjunctive 112
    15.8 Simple tenses: future subjunctive 112
    15.9 Future and conditional tenses 112
    15.10 Simple pluperfect tense 113
    15.11 Stress patterns in regular verbs 113
    15.12 Spelling conventions governing regular verbs 114
  16. Semi-irregular and irregular verbs – 116
    16.1 Radical-changing verbs 116
    16.2 Semi-irregular verbs 117
    16.3 Irregular verbs 118
  17. Gerunds, past participles, compound tenses and the passive – 123
    17.1 Gerunds 123
    17.2 Past participles 124
    17.3 Compound tenses 125
    17.4 The passive 126
  18. Use of the tenses – 128
    18.1 Present simple 128
    18.2 Present continuous 128
    18.3 Imperfect 129
    18.4 Imperfect continuous 130
    18.5 Preterite 130
    18.6 Perfect 131
    18.7 Pluperfect 131
    18.8 Future tense 131
    18.9 Future perfect 132
    18.10 Conditional 132
    18.11 Conditional perfect 133
  19. The infinitive – 134
    19.1 Introduction 134
    19.2 Uses of the infinitive 134
    19.3 Impersonal vs. personal infinitive 135
    19.4 Use of the infinitive after prepositions 136
    19.5 Verbs followed by the infinitive 137
    19.6 Cases where either the impersonal or personal infinitive may be used 139
    19.7 Personal infinitive with the same subject as the main verb 140
    19.8 Position of object pronouns with the infinitive 140
    19.9 Other uses of the infinitive 141
  20. The subjunctive – 143
    20.1 Introduction 143
    20.2 Sequence of tenses 143
    20.3 The present or imperfect subjunctive in subordinate clauses 144
    20.4 The future or imperfect subjunctive in subordinate clauses 146
    20.5 The subjunctive in conditional clauses 147
    20.6 The subjunctive in main clauses 148
    20.7 Idiomatic uses of the subjunctive 149
    20.8 Subjunctive vs. infinitive 149
    20.9 Avoidance of the subjunctive in colloquial speech 149
  21. The imperative – 150
    21.1 Familiar imperative 150
    21.2 Formal imperative 151
    21.3 Plural imperative 151
  22. Reflexive verbs – 152
    22.1 Introduction 152
    22.2 Reflexive object pronouns 152
    22.3 Meaning patterns of reflexive verbs 152
    22.4 Impersonal se-construction 154
    22.5 Reflexive verbs in the spoken language 155
    22.6 Other reflexive pronouns 155
  23. Ser, estar and ficar – 157
    23.1 Introduction 157
    23.2 ser 157
    23.3 estar 159
    23.4 ficar 160
    23.5 Adjectives used with either ser or estar 160
    23.6 Translating ‘was / were', ‘has / have been', etc. 161
    23.7 Idiomatic expressions with ser 162
    23.8 Idiomatic expressions with estar 163
    23.9 Other meanings and idiomatic uses of ficar 165
  24. Verbs used in auxiliary, modal1 and impersonal constructions – 167
    24.1 Auxiliary constructions 167
    24.2 Modal2 constructions 169
    24.3 Impersonal uses of certain verbs 173
  25. Prepositions – 176
    25.1 Basic prepositions: a, com, de, em, para, por 176
    25.2 Other simple (one-word) prepositions 183
    25.3 Compound prepositions of place 186
    25.4 Compound prepositions of time 188
    25.5 Other compound prepositions 188
  26. Conjunctions – 191
    26.1 Coordinating conjunctions 191
    26.2 Subordinating conjunctions 193
    26.3 Preposition vs. conjunction 201
    26.4 Gerund vs. conjunction 201
  27. Word order – 202
    27.1 Word order in statements 202
    27.2 Word order in questions 203
    27.3 Word order in indirect questions 203
  28. Word formation – 204
    28.1 Diminutives 204
    28.2 Augmentatives 206
    28.3 The appreciative suffix -aço 207
    28.4 The depreciative suffix -eco 207
    28.5 Verbal nouns ending in -ada / -ida 208
    28.6 Instrumental nouns ending in -ada 208
    28.7 Collective nouns ending in -ada 209

    Part B - Functions

    I. Social contact and communication strategies – 213
  29. Making social contacts – 215
    29.1 Greeting someone 215
    29.2 Conveying greetings 216
    29.3 Asking people how they are 217
    29.4 Introducing yourself and others 218
    29.5 Taking leave 220
    29.6 Expressing wishes 221
    29.7 Congratulating somebody 222
    29.8 Using the phone 223
    29.9 Writing letters 227
  30. Basic strategies for communication – 232
    30.1 Attracting someone's attention and responding to a call for attention 232
    30.2 Starting up a conversation 233
    30.3 Requesting repetition and responding 233
    30.4 Making sure you understand and are understood 234
    30.5 Signalling that you understand the speaker and are following what is being said 235
    30.6 Asking how to pronounce or spell a word 236
    30.7 Interrupting a speaker 236
    30.8 Fillers 237
    30.9 Changing the subject 239
    30.10 Formal development of a topic 240

    II. Giving and seeking factual information 243
  31. Asking questions and responding – 245
    31.1 Yes-no questions 245
    31.2 Content questions 246
    31.3 Follow-up questions 247
    31.4 Rhetorical questions 247
    31.5 Tag questions 248
    31.6 Negative questions 248
    31.7 Polite questions 249
    31.8 Other ways of answering questions 249
  32. Negating – 251
    32.1 Negating adjectives 251
    32.2 Negating nouns 252
    32.3 Negating verbs 252
  33. Reporting – 253
    33.1 Direct vs. indirect speech 253
    33.2 Indirect speech 253
    33.3 Reporting statements 254
    33.4 Reporting questions 255
    33.5 Reporting yes and no answers 255
    33.6 Reporting commands and requests 256
  34. Asking and giving personal information – 258
    34.1 Name 258
    34.2 Nationality and place of origin 260
    34.3 Marital status 260
    34.4 Age 261
    34.5 Date and place of birth 262
    34.6 Occupation, status or rank, religious, political and other affiliations 263
  35. Identifying people and things – 265
    35.1 Identifying yourself and others 265
    35.2 Identifying things 266
  36. Describing – 267
    36.1 Referring to a subject's nature or identity 267
    36.2 Enquiring about a subject's nature or appearance 269
    36.3 Describing a state or condition 270
    36.4 Descriptions involving an unspoken comparison 271
    36.5 Asking and saying what something is made of 271
    36.6 Describing events 271
    36.7 Describing facts or information 272
    36.8 Describing a person's character and attitude 272
    36.9 Describing the weather 273
  37. Making comparisons – 275
    37.1 Comparisons of inequality 275
    37.2 Comparisons of equality 277
    37.3 Comparing more than two objects 279
  38. Expressing existence and availability – 281
    38.1 Asking and answering questions regarding existence 281
    38.2 Describing facilities 283
    38.3 Expressing availability 283
  39. Expressing location and distance – 285
    39.1 Expressing location 285
    39.2 Asking and saying where an event will take place or took place 287
    39.3 Indicating precise location 288
    39.4 Indicating distance 290
  40. Expressing possessive relations – 292
    40.1 Expressing ownership and possession 292
    40.2 Emphasizing possessive relations 295
    40.3 Expressing possessive relations involving parts of the body, personal effects and close family members 296
    40.4 Asking whose something is 296
    40.5 Other ways of expressing possession 297
  41. Expressing changes – 298
    41.1 Talking about changes of state and appearance 298
    41.2 Talking about changes of status, nature and identity 301
    41.3 Other verbs that express change 303
  42. Expressing cause, effect and purpose – 304
    42.1 Enquiring about cause 304
    42.2 Giving reasons and expressing relationships of cause and effect 305
    42.3 Other ways of expressing relationships of cause and effect 307
    42.4 Enquiring about purpose 309
    42.5 Expressing purpose 310

    III. Putting events into a wider context - 313
  43. Expressing knowledge – 315
    43.1 Expressing knowledge of a fact 315
    43.2 Saying that one knows a person, a place or an object 316
    43.3 Cases in which both saber and conhecer can be used with a difference of meaning 316
    43.4 Expressing knowledge of a subject 317
    43.5 Expressing knowledge of a language 317
    43.6 Expressing knowledge of a skill 317
    43.7 Getting to know, becoming acquainted with or meeting someone 317
    43.8 Hearing or finding out about something 318
  44. Remembering and forgetting – 319
    44.1 Remembering 319
    44.2 Reminding 322
    44.3 Forgetting 324
  45. Expressing obligation and duty – 326
    45.1 Expressing obligation and duty with regard to oneself and others 326
    45.2 Enquiring whether one is obliged to do something 328
    45.3 Expressing obligation in an impersonal way 328
    45.4 Other ways of expressing obligation and duty 329
    45.5 Expressing unfulfilled obligation 329
  46. Expressing needs – 331
    46.1 Expressing needs with regard to oneself and others 331
    46.2 Asking people about their needs 332
    46.3 Expressing needs in an impersonal way 333
    46.4 Expressing strong need 335
  47. Expressing possibility and probability – 336
    47.1 Saying whether something is considered possible, probable or impossible 336
    47.2 Enquiring whether something is considered possible or impossible 339
  48. Expressing certainty and uncertainty – 341
    48.1 Saying how certain one is of something 341
    48.2 Enquiring about certainty or uncertainty 343
  49. Expressing supposition – 345
    49.1 Common expressions of supposition 345
  50. Expressing conditions – 348
    50.1 Open conditions 348
    50.2 Remote and unreal conditions 349
    50.3 Unfulfilled conditions 350
    50.4 Other conditional expressions 351
  51. Expressing contrast or opposition – 354
    51.1 Common expressions of contrast or opposition 354
  52. Expressing capability and incapability – 359
    52.1 Enquiring and making statements about capability or incapability 359
    52.2 Enquiring and making statements about learned abilities 361
  53. Seeking and giving permission – 362
    53.1 Seeking permission 362
    53.2 Giving permission 364
    53.3 Stating that permission is withheld 365
  54. Asking and giving opinions – 367
    54.1 Asking someone's opinion 367
    54.2 Expressing opinions 369
    54.3 Reporting on other people's opinions 373
  55. Expressing agreement, disagreement and indifference – 374
    55.1 Expressing agreement 374
    55.2 Expressing disagreement 375
    55.3 Asking about agreement and disagreement 376
    55.4 Expressing indifference 377

    IV. Expressing emotional attitudes 379
  56. Expressing desires and preferences – 381
    56.1 Expressing desires 381
    56.2 Enquiring about desires 384
    56.3 Expressing preferences and enquiring about preferences 384
    56.4 Expressing desires and preferences involving others 386
  57. Expressing likes and dislikes – 387
    57.1 How to say you like or dislike someone or something 387
    57.2 Enquiring about likes and dislikes 388
    57.3 Other ways of expressing likes and dislikes 389
  58. Expressing surprise – 392
    58.1 Set expressions 392
    58.2 Expressing surprise with regard to someone or something 392
  59. Expressing satisfaction and dissatisfaction – 394
    59.1 Expressing satisfaction 394
    59.2 Expressing dissatisfaction 395
    59.3 Enquiring about satisfaction or dissatisfaction 395
  60. Expressing hope – 397
    60.1 Saying what one hopes or others hope to do 397
    60.2 Expressing hope with regard to others 397
    60.3 Expressing hope in response to a question or statement 398
  61. Expressing sympathy – 400
    61.1 Saying one is sorry about something 400
    61.2 Saying one is glad about something 402
  62. Apologizing and expressing forgiveness – 404
    62.1 Apologizing 404
    62.2 Expressing forgiveness 406
  63. Expressing fear or worry – 407
    63.1 Common expressions of fear 407
    63.2 Other ways of expressing fear 410
  64. Expressing gratitude – 411
    64.1 Expressing gratitude 411
    64.2 Responding to an expression of gratitude 413

    V. The language of persuasion 415
  65. Giving advice and making suggestions – 417
    65.1 Giving advice and making suggestions that do not involve the speaker 417
    65.2 Suggesting a course of action involving the speaker 420
    65.3 Asking for advice and suggestions 422
  66. Making requests – 424
    66.1 Common expressions of request 424
  67. Giving directions, instructions and orders – 427
    67.1 Giving directions and instructions 427
    67.2 Giving orders 428
  68. Making an offer or invitation and accepting or declining – 430
    68.1 Making an offer or invitation 430
    68.2 Accepting or declining an offer or invitation 433
    68.3 Enquiring whether an invitation is accepted or declined 434

    VI. Expressing temporal relations 435
  69. Talking about the present – 437
    69.1 The present simple 437
    69.2 The present continuous 438
    69.3 Expressing habitual action with costumer + infinitive 439
    69.4 Saying how long one has been doing something 439
  70. Talking about the future – 442
    70.1 Talking about future events 442
    70.2 Talking about scheduled events in the future 443
    70.3 Talking about plans and intentions for the future 443
    70.4 Expressing the future from a past perspective 445
    70.5 Other ways of expressing the future 446
  71. Talking about the past – 447
    71.1 Talking about events that are past and complete 447
    71.2 Saying how long ago something happened 447
    71.3 Talking about long-lasting past events 448
    71.4 Talking about past events related to the present 448
    71.5 Referring to a prolonged or repeated action that began in the past and is still in progress 449
    71.6 Referring to the immediate past 449
    71.7 Referring to actions and developments that have been happening in the recent past 450
    71.8 Describing past states or actions in progress over an unspecified period of time 451
    71.9 Talking about past habitual actions 451
    71.10 Talking about actions that were taking place when something else happened 452
    71.11 Talking about a past event or action that occurred before another past event or action 453
    71.12 Referring to a prolonged or repeated action that began at an earlier time and was still in progress at a point in the past 453
    Appendices 454
    … Appendix I: Regular verb forms 454
    … Appendix II: Principal irregular verbs 455
    … Appendix III: Verbs with irregular past participles 457
    … Appendix IV: Verbs with both a regular and an irregular past participle 457
    … Appendix V: Second person verb forms 458
    Bibliography 460
    Index of words and topics 461

Text Colour Conventions (see disclaimer)

  1. Blue: Text by me; © Theo Todman, 2018
  2. Mauve: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); © the author(s)



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