<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Whitlam (John) - Modern Brazilian Portuguese Grammar: A Practical Guide (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_17/PaperSummary_17322.htm">Modern Brazilian Portuguese Grammar: A Practical Guide</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/W/Author_Whitlam (John).htm">Whitlam (John)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Whitlam (John) - Modern Brazilian Portuguese Grammar: A Practical Guide</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=600><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_17/PaperSummary_17322.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_17/PapersToNotes_17322.htm">Notes Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Contents</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1">Introduction 1<BR>Glossary of grammatical terms 3<BR><BR><B><U>Part A  Structures</B></U><li><B>Pronunciation and spelling</B>  11<BR>1.1 The Portuguese alphabet 11<BR>1.2 Consonant sounds 11<BR>1.3 Oral vowel sounds 13<BR>1.4 Nasal vowel sounds 14<BR>1.5 Spelling and pronunciation 15<BR>1.6 Syllabification 16<BR>1.7 Stress and written accents 17<BR>1.8 Hyphenation 19<BR>1.9 Use of capital letters 20<BR>1.10 Punctuation 21</li><li><B>Gender and gender agreement</B>  22<BR>2.1 What is grammatical gender? 22<BR>2.2 Rules for determining gender 22<BR>2.3 Feminine forms of nouns and adjectives 25</li><li><B>Number and number agreement</B>  27<BR>3.1 Singular vs. plural 27<BR>3.2 Forming the plural of nouns and adjectives 27<BR>3.3 Plurals referring collectively to males and females 29<BR>3.4 Use of singular and plural 30<BR>3.5 Countability 31</li><li><B>Articles</B>  32<BR>4.1 The definite article 32<BR>4.2 The indefinite article 35</li><li><B>Adjectives and adverbs</B>  38<BR>5.1 Position of adjectives 38<BR>5.2 Adjectives that always precede the noun 38<BR>5.3 Adjectives with different meanings according to their position 39<BR>5.4 Adjectives used as nouns 41<BR>5.5 Adjectives used as adverbs 42<BR>5.6 Formation of adverbs of manner 43<BR>5.7 Position of adverbs and adverbials 43<BR>5.8 Comparison of adjectives and adverbs 44<BR>5.9 Irregular comparative forms 44<BR>5.10 The syntax of comparative sentences 45 <BR>5.11 The absolute superlative 46<BR>5.12 Colloquial intensifiers 47</li><li><B>Numbers and numerical expressions</B>  48<BR>6.1 Cardinal numbers 48<BR>6.2 Ordinal numbers 49<BR>6.3 Collective numbers 50<BR>6.4 Dates 51<BR>6.5 Clock time 51<BR>6.6 Fractions 53<BR>6.7 Decimal fractions 53<BR>6.8 Percentages 53<BR>6.9 Monetary amounts 54 <BR>6.10 Monarchs, popes, etc. 54</li><li><B>Personal pronouns</B>  55<BR>7.1 First person pronouns 55<BR>7.2 You 56<BR>7.3 Third person pronouns 58<BR>7.4 Use of subject pronouns 60<BR>7.5 Placement of unstressed object pronouns 61<BR>7.6 More about indirect pronoun objects 65<BR>7.7 Pronouns used with prepositions 66<BR>7.8 Emphatic uses of object pronouns 66<BR>7.9 Non-standard pronouns 67<BR>7.10 Brazilian personal pronoun usage - quick reference tables 68</li><li><B>Demonstratives</B>  70<BR>8.1 Introduction 70<BR>8.2 Forms and meaning 70<BR>8.3 Usage 70<BR>8.4 Neuter demonstrative pronouns 72<BR>8.5 Demonstrative adverbs  here' and  there' 73</li><li><B>Possessives</B>  75<BR>9.1 Introduction 75<BR>9.2 Forms 75<BR>9.3 Usage 75<BR>9.4 Omission of possessives 77<BR>9.5 <B>prprio</B>  own' 78<BR>9.6 Possessives after the verb <B>ser</B>  to be' 78<BR>9.7 The second person possessive <B>teu(s) / tua(s) </B> 78<BR>9.8 Special use of the possessive <B>seu(s) / sua(s) </B> 79</li><li><B>Relative pronouns</B>  80 <BR>10.1 <B>que</B> 80<BR>10.2 <B>quem</B> 80<BR>10.3 <B>o que</B> 81<BR>10.4 <B>o / a qual, os / as quais</B> 81<BR>10.5 <B>cujo(s), cuja(s) </B> 82<BR>10.6 <B>quanto(s) / quanta(s) </B> 82<BR>10.7 <B>onde</B> 83<BR>10.8 Note on translating  when' as a relative 83</li><li><B>Interrogatives</B>  84<BR>11.1 <B>o que</B> 84 <BR>11.2 <B>que</B> 84 <BR>11.3 <B>qual, quais</B> 84 <BR>11.4 <B>quem</B> 85 <BR>11.5 <B>quanto(s) / quanta(s) </B> 86 <BR>11.6 <B>como</B> 86 <BR>11.7 <B>onde</B> 87 <BR>11.8 <B>quando</B> 87 <BR>11.9 <B>por que</B> 88 <BR>11.10 <B>para que</B> 88 <BR>11.11 <B>quo</B> 88 <BR>11.12 Other points about interrogatives 88 </li><li><B>Exclamations</B>  91<BR>12.1 <B>que</B> 91 <BR>12.2 <B>quanto(s) / quanta(s) </B> 91 <BR>12.3 <B>como</B> 91 </li><li><B>Indefinite adjectives and pronouns</B>  93<BR>13.1 <B>todo(s) / toda(s) </B> 93 <BR>13.2 <B>tudo</B> 94 <BR>13.3 <B>ambos / as</B> 95 <BR>13.4 <B>cada</B> 96 <BR>13.5 <B>qualquer</B> 96 <BR>13.6 <B>alguem</B> 97 <BR>13.7 <B>algum / alguma, alguns / algumas</B> 97 <BR>13.8 <B>alguma coisa</B> 98 <BR>13.9 <B>algo</B> 98 <BR>13.10 <B>outro(s) / outra(s) </B> 98 <BR>13.11 <B>tal</B> 99 <BR>13.12 Adjectives and pronouns of quantity 100 <BR>13.13 Other indefinite adjectives and pronouns 102 <BR>13.14  Else' 103 </li><li><B>Negatives</B>  104<BR>14.1 <B>no</B> 104 <BR>14.2 <B>nada</B> 105 <BR>14.3 <B>ningum</B> 105 <BR>14.4 <B>nunca</B> 106 <BR>14.5 <B>jamais </B>106 <BR>14.6 <B>nem</B> 106 <BR>14.7 <B>nenhum / nenhuma</B> 107 <BR>14.8 <B>sem</B> 107 </li><li><B>Regular verb conjugations</B>  109 <BR>15.1 Introduction to Portuguese verbs: how the system works 109<BR>15.2 The infinitive and the stem 109<BR>15.3 Simple tenses: present indicative 110<BR>15.4 Simple tenses: imperfect indicative 110<BR>15.5 Simple tenses: preterite indicative 111<BR>15.6 Simple tenses: present subjunctive 111<BR>15.7 Simple tenses: imperfect subjunctive 112<BR>15.8 Simple tenses: future subjunctive 112<BR>15.9 Future and conditional tenses 112<BR>15.10 Simple pluperfect tense 113<BR>15.11 Stress patterns in regular verbs 113<BR>15.12 Spelling conventions governing regular verbs 114</li><li><B>Semi-irregular and irregular verbs</B>  116 <BR>16.1 Radical-changing verbs 116<BR>16.2 Semi-irregular verbs 117<BR>16.3 Irregular verbs 118</li><li><B>Gerunds, past participles, compound tenses and the passive</B>  123 <BR>17.1 Gerunds 123<BR>17.2 Past participles 124<BR>17.3 Compound tenses 125<BR>17.4 The passive 126</li><li><B>Use of the tenses</B>  128 <BR>18.1 Present simple 128<BR>18.2 Present continuous 128 <BR>18.3 Imperfect 129<BR>18.4 Imperfect continuous 130 <BR>18.5 Preterite 130<BR>18.6 Perfect 131<BR>18.7 Pluperfect 131<BR>18.8 Future tense 131<BR>18.9 Future perfect 132 <BR>18.10 Conditional 132<BR>18.11 Conditional perfect 133</li><li><B>The infinitive</B>  134 <BR>19.1 Introduction 134<BR>19.2 Uses of the infinitive 134<BR>19.3 Impersonal vs. personal infinitive 135<BR>19.4 Use of the infinitive after prepositions 136<BR>19.5 Verbs followed by the infinitive 137<BR>19.6 Cases where either the impersonal or personal infinitive may be used 139<BR>19.7 Personal infinitive with the same subject as the main verb 140 <BR>19.8 Position of object pronouns with the infinitive 140<BR>19.9 Other uses of the infinitive 141</li><li><B>The subjunctive</B>  143 <BR>20.1 Introduction 143<BR>20.2 Sequence of tenses 143<BR>20.3 The present or imperfect subjunctive in subordinate clauses 144<BR>20.4 The future or imperfect subjunctive in subordinate clauses 146<BR>20.5 The subjunctive in conditional clauses 147<BR>20.6 The subjunctive in main clauses 148<BR>20.7 Idiomatic uses of the subjunctive 149<BR>20.8 Subjunctive vs. infinitive 149<BR>20.9 Avoidance of the subjunctive in colloquial speech 149</li><li><B>The imperative</B>  150 <BR>21.1 Familiar imperative 150<BR>21.2 Formal imperative 151<BR>21.3 Plural imperative 151</li><li><B>Reflexive verbs</B>  152 <BR>22.1 Introduction 152<BR>22.2 Reflexive object pronouns 152<BR>22.3 Meaning patterns of reflexive verbs 152<BR>22.4 Impersonal <B>se-</B>construction 154<BR>22.5 Reflexive verbs in the spoken language 155<BR>22.6 Other reflexive pronouns 155</li><li><B>Ser, estar</B> and <B>ficar</B>  157 <BR>23.1 Introduction 157<BR>23.2 <B>ser</B> 157 <BR>23.3 <B>estar</B> 159 <BR>23.4 <B>ficar</B> 160<BR>23.5 Adjectives used with either <B>ser</B> or <B>estar</B> 160<BR>23.6 Translating  was / were',  has / have been', etc. 161<BR>23.7 Idiomatic expressions with <B>ser</B> 162<BR>23.8 Idiomatic expressions with <B>estar</B> 163<BR>23.9 Other meanings and idiomatic uses of <B>ficar</B> 165</li><li><B>Verbs used in auxiliary, <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>1</SUP> and impersonal constructions</B>  167 <BR>24.1 Auxiliary constructions 167<BR>24.2 <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">Modal</A><SUP>2</SUP> constructions 169<BR>24.3 Impersonal uses of certain verbs 173</li><li><B>Prepositions</B>  176 <BR>25.1 Basic prepositions: <B>a, com, de, em, para, por</B> 176<BR>25.2 Other simple (one-word) prepositions 183<BR>25.3 Compound prepositions of place 186<BR>25.4 Compound prepositions of time 188<BR>25.5 Other compound prepositions 188</li><li><B>Conjunctions</B>  191 <BR>26.1 Coordinating conjunctions 191<BR>26.2 Subordinating conjunctions 193<BR>26.3 Preposition vs. conjunction 201<BR>26.4 Gerund vs. conjunction 201</li><li><B>Word order</B>  202<BR>27.1 Word order in statements 202 <BR>27.2 Word order in questions 203<BR>27.3 Word order in indirect questions 203</li><li><B>Word formation</B>  204<BR>28.1 Diminutives 204<BR>28.2 Augmentatives 206<BR>28.3 The appreciative suffix <B>-ao</B> 207<BR>28.4 The depreciative suffix <B>-eco</B> 207<BR>28.5 Verbal nouns ending in <B>-ada / -ida</B> 208<BR>28.6 Instrumental nouns ending in <B>-ada</B> 208<BR>28.7 Collective nouns ending in <B>-ada</B> 209<BR><BR><B><U>Part B - Functions </B></U><BR><BR><B>I. Social contact and communication strategies</B>  213</li><li><B>Making social contacts</B>  215<BR>29.1 Greeting someone 215<BR>29.2 Conveying greetings 216<BR>29.3 Asking people how they are 217<BR>29.4 Introducing yourself and others 218<BR>29.5 Taking leave 220<BR>29.6 Expressing wishes 221<BR>29.7 Congratulating somebody 222<BR>29.8 Using the phone 223<BR>29.9 Writing letters 227</li><li><B>Basic strategies for communication</B>  232<BR>30.1 Attracting someone's attention and responding to a call for attention 232<BR>30.2 Starting up a conversation 233<BR>30.3 Requesting repetition and responding 233<BR>30.4 Making sure you understand and are understood 234<BR>30.5 Signalling that you understand the speaker and are following what is being said 235<BR>30.6 Asking how to pronounce or spell a word 236<BR>30.7 Interrupting a speaker 236<BR>30.8 Fillers 237<BR>30.9 Changing the subject 239<BR>30.10 Formal development of a topic 240<BR><BR><B>II. Giving and seeking factual information</B> 243</li><li><B>Asking questions and responding</B>  245<BR>31.1 Yes-no questions 245<BR>31.2 Content questions 246<BR>31.3 Follow-up questions 247<BR>31.4 Rhetorical questions 247<BR>31.5 Tag questions 248<BR>31.6 Negative questions 248<BR>31.7 Polite questions 249<BR>31.8 Other ways of answering questions 249</li><li><B>Negating</B>  251 <BR>32.1 Negating adjectives 251<BR>32.2 Negating nouns 252<BR>32.3 Negating verbs 252</li><li><B>Reporting</B>  253 <BR>33.1 Direct vs. indirect speech 253<BR>33.2 Indirect speech 253<BR>33.3 Reporting statements 254<BR>33.4 Reporting questions 255<BR>33.5 Reporting yes and no answers 255<BR>33.6 Reporting commands and requests 256</li><li><B>Asking and giving personal information</B>  258 <BR>34.1 Name 258<BR>34.2 Nationality and place of origin 260<BR>34.3 Marital status 260<BR>34.4 Age 261<BR>34.5 Date and place of birth 262<BR>34.6 Occupation, status or rank, religious, political and other affiliations 263</li><li><B>Identifying people and things</B>  265 <BR>35.1 Identifying yourself and others 265<BR>35.2 Identifying things 266</li><li><B>Describing</B>  267 <BR>36.1 Referring to a subject's nature or identity 267<BR>36.2 Enquiring about a subject's nature or appearance 269<BR>36.3 Describing a state or condition 270<BR>36.4 Descriptions involving an unspoken comparison 271<BR>36.5 Asking and saying what something is made of 271<BR>36.6 Describing events 271<BR>36.7 Describing facts or information 272<BR>36.8 Describing a person's character and attitude 272<BR>36.9 Describing the weather 273</li><li><B>Making comparisons</B>  275 <BR>37.1 Comparisons of inequality 275<BR>37.2 Comparisons of equality 277<BR>37.3 Comparing more than two objects 279</li><li><B>Expressing existence and availability</B>  281 <BR>38.1 Asking and answering questions regarding existence 281<BR>38.2 Describing facilities 283<BR>38.3 Expressing availability 283</li><li><B>Expressing location and distance</B>  285 <BR>39.1 Expressing location 285<BR>39.2 Asking and saying where an event will take place or took place 287 <BR>39.3 Indicating precise location 288<BR>39.4 Indicating distance 290</li><li><B>Expressing possessive relations</B>  292 <BR>40.1 Expressing ownership and possession 292<BR>40.2 Emphasizing possessive relations 295<BR>40.3 Expressing possessive relations involving parts of the body, personal effects and close family members 296<BR>40.4 Asking whose something is 296<BR>40.5 Other ways of expressing possession 297</li><li><B>Expressing changes</B>  298 <BR>41.1 Talking about changes of state and appearance 298<BR>41.2 Talking about changes of status, nature and identity 301<BR>41.3 Other verbs that express change 303</li><li><B>Expressing cause, effect and purpose</B>  304 <BR>42.1 Enquiring about cause 304<BR>42.2 Giving reasons and expressing relationships of cause and effect 305 <BR>42.3 Other ways of expressing relationships of cause and effect 307 <BR>42.4 Enquiring about purpose 309<BR>42.5 Expressing purpose 310<BR><BR><B>III. Putting events into a wider context</B> - 313</li><li><B>Expressing knowledge</B>  315 <BR>43.1 Expressing knowledge of a fact 315<BR>43.2 Saying that one knows a person, a place or an object 316<BR>43.3 Cases in which both <B>saber</B> and <B>conhecer</B> can be used with a difference of meaning 316<BR>43.4 Expressing knowledge of a subject 317<BR>43.5 Expressing knowledge of a language 317<BR>43.6 Expressing knowledge of a skill 317<BR>43.7 Getting to know, becoming acquainted with or meeting someone 317<BR>43.8 Hearing or finding out about something 318</li><li><B>Remembering and forgetting</B>  319 <BR>44.1 Remembering 319<BR>44.2 Reminding 322<BR>44.3 Forgetting 324</li><li><B>Expressing obligation and duty</B>  326 <BR>45.1 Expressing obligation and duty with regard to oneself and others 326<BR>45.2 Enquiring whether one is obliged to do something 328<BR>45.3 Expressing obligation in an impersonal way 328<BR>45.4 Other ways of expressing obligation and duty 329<BR>45.5 Expressing unfulfilled obligation 329</li><li><B>Expressing needs</B>  331 <BR>46.1 Expressing needs with regard to oneself and others 331<BR>46.2 Asking people about their needs 332<BR>46.3 Expressing needs in an impersonal way 333<BR>46.4 Expressing strong need 335</li><li><B>Expressing possibility and probability</B>  336 <BR>47.1 Saying whether something is considered possible, probable or impossible 336<BR>47.2 Enquiring whether something is considered possible or impossible 339</li><li><B>Expressing certainty and uncertainty</B>  341 <BR>48.1 Saying how certain one is of something 341<BR>48.2 Enquiring about certainty or uncertainty 343</li><li><B>Expressing supposition</B>  345 <BR>49.1 Common expressions of supposition 345</li><li><B>Expressing conditions</B>  348 <BR>50.1 Open conditions 348<BR>50.2 Remote and unreal conditions 349<BR>50.3 Unfulfilled conditions 350<BR>50.4 Other conditional expressions 351</li><li><B>Expressing contrast or opposition</B>  354 <BR>51.1 Common expressions of contrast or opposition 354</li><li><B>Expressing capability and incapability</B>  359 <BR>52.1 Enquiring and making statements about capability or incapability 359 <BR>52.2 Enquiring and making statements about learned abilities 361</li><li><B>Seeking and giving permission</B>  362 <BR>53.1 Seeking permission 362<BR>53.2 Giving permission 364<BR>53.3 Stating that permission is withheld 365</li><li><B>Asking and giving opinions</B>  367 <BR>54.1 Asking someone's opinion 367<BR>54.2 Expressing opinions 369<BR>54.3 Reporting on other people's opinions 373</li><li><B>Expressing agreement, disagreement and indifference</B>  374 <BR>55.1 Expressing agreement 374<BR>55.2 Expressing disagreement 375<BR>55.3 Asking about agreement and disagreement 376<BR>55.4 Expressing indifference 377<BR><BR><B>IV. Expressing emotional attitudes</B> 379</li><li><B>Expressing desires and preferences</B>  381 <BR>56.1 Expressing desires 381<BR>56.2 Enquiring about desires 384<BR>56.3 Expressing preferences and enquiring about preferences 384 <BR>56.4 Expressing desires and preferences involving others 386</li><li><B>Expressing likes and dislikes</B>  387 <BR>57.1 How to say you like or dislike someone or something 387<BR>57.2 Enquiring about likes and dislikes 388<BR>57.3 Other ways of expressing likes and dislikes 389</li><li><B>Expressing surprise</B>  392 <BR>58.1 Set expressions 392<BR>58.2 Expressing surprise with regard to someone or something 392</li><li><B>Expressing satisfaction and dissatisfaction</B>  394 <BR>59.1 Expressing satisfaction 394<BR>59.2 Expressing dissatisfaction 395<BR>59.3 Enquiring about satisfaction or dissatisfaction 395</li><li><B>Expressing hope</B>  397 <BR>60.1 Saying what one hopes or others hope to do 397<BR>60.2 Expressing hope with regard to others 397<BR>60.3 Expressing hope in response to a question or statement 398</li><li><B>Expressing sympathy</B>  400 <BR>61.1 Saying one is sorry about something 400<BR>61.2 Saying one is glad about something 402</li><li><B>Apologizing and expressing forgiveness</B>  404 <BR>62.1 Apologizing 404<BR>62.2 Expressing forgiveness 406</li><li><B>Expressing fear or worry</B>  407 <BR>63.1 Common expressions of fear 407<BR>63.2 Other ways of expressing fear 410</li><li><B>Expressing gratitude</B>  411 <BR>64.1 Expressing gratitude 411<BR>64.2 Responding to an expression of gratitude 413<BR><BR><B>V. The language of persuasion</B> 415</li><li><B>Giving advice and making suggestions</B>  417 <BR>65.1 Giving advice and making suggestions that do not involve the speaker 417<BR>65.2 Suggesting a course of action involving the speaker 420<BR>65.3 Asking for advice and suggestions 422</li><li><B>Making requests</B>  424 <BR>66.1 Common expressions of request 424</li><li><B>Giving directions, instructions and orders</B>  427 <BR>67.1 Giving directions and instructions 427<BR>67.2 Giving orders 428</li><li><B>Making an offer or invitation and accepting or declining</B>  430 <BR>68.1 Making an offer or invitation 430<BR>68.2 Accepting or declining an offer or invitation 433<BR>68.3 Enquiring whether an invitation is accepted or declined 434<BR><BR><B>VI. Expressing temporal relations</B> 435</li><li><B>Talking about the present</B>  437 <BR>69.1 The present simple 437<BR>69.2 The present continuous 438<BR>69.3 Expressing habitual action with <B>costumer</B> + infinitive 439<BR>69.4 Saying how long one has been doing something 439</li><li><B>Talking about the future</B>  442 <BR>70.1 Talking about future events 442<BR>70.2 Talking about scheduled events in the future 443<BR>70.3 Talking about plans and intentions for the future 443<BR>70.4 Expressing the future from a past perspective 445<BR>70.5 Other ways of expressing the future 446</li><li><B>Talking about the past</B>  447 <BR>71.1 Talking about events that are past and complete 447 <BR>71.2 Saying how long ago something happened 447<BR>71.3 Talking about long-lasting past events 448<BR>71.4 Talking about past events related to the present 448<BR>71.5 Referring to a prolonged or repeated action that began in the past and is still in progress 449<BR>71.6 Referring to the immediate past 449<BR>71.7 Referring to actions and developments that have been happening in the recent past 450<BR>71.8 Describing past states or actions in progress over an unspecified period of time 451<BR>71.9 Talking about past habitual actions 451<BR>71.10 Talking about actions that were taking place when something else happened 452<BR>71.11 Talking about a past event or action that occurred before another past event or action 453<BR>71.12 Referring to a prolonged or repeated action that began at an earlier time and was still in progress at a point in the past 453<BR><B>Appendices</B> 454 <BR>& Appendix I: Regular verb forms 454<BR>& Appendix II: Principal irregular verbs 455<BR>& Appendix III: Verbs with irregular past participles 457<BR>& Appendix IV: Verbs with both a regular and an irregular past participle 457 <BR>& Appendix V: Second person verb forms 458<BR><B>Bibliography </B>460<BR><B>Index of words and topics</B> 461</li></ol></FONT><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-03T00:15" pubdate>03/08/2018 00:15:44</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>