- This pseudo-Paper is intended as the mechanism to record time spent on the Note 'Animals1' during my Thesis research, as from 2011.
- For the actual time recorded, click on "Paper Summary" above.
Write-up2 (as at 29/01/2018 21:24:29): Animals
- According to the Animalists4, human animals are what we are5. Some philosophers, eg. Baker6, seem to think that describing us as animals is demeaning, but this seems to muddle together all the varieties of animal into one bestial bunch. Clearly, there are a lot of differences between lug-worms and the great apes, and further – but much less significant – differences between the non-human great apes and ourselves.
- Several points need to be made here.
- Firstly, what all animals have in common is that they are organisms7 and have common persistence-conditions8 (PCs) in virtue of this fact; in particular, our psychology – however important to us – is irrelevant to our persistence9, and hence, to our identity.
- Secondly, the contentious point is whether aspects of the psychology of some higher animals are so distinctive that (as Baker claims) an ontological difference beyond the mere existence of a new species is in evidence. Baker thinks the watershed is a FPP10.
- Leading on from this is the claim that the FPP is so important, that we are not animals, but persons11.
- A question to consider, probably under the topic of organisms12, is whether the PCs of all organisms are the same. Plants and animals are both organisms.
- Non-animalists raise issues about the presumed supreme moral status and cognitive abilities of human beings. Demonstrating that these abilities – however well or badly exemplified by humans as a species or as individuals – are on a continuum with those of the higher animals – in particular the great apes – rather than unique in kind to human beings – requires the researcher into personal identity to investigate just what the cognitive and moral capacities of animals actually are. Similarly, this study is stimulated by Locke’s13 claim that personhood is a forensic14 property.
- The Note on persons15 deals with the question of what the concept PERSON consists in. Whether any non-human animals fall under the concept PERSON will be covered in this Note.
- The segregation of the reading lists below between this Note and that on Animalism16 is intended to reflect the distinction between the investigation into the cognitive and moral capacities of the higher animals as such – including the comparison between human and non-human animals – and the claim that we human persons are animals.
- I’ve also segregated off to the note on Animal Rights17 those matters specific to the ethical treatment of animals.
- Works on this topic that I’ve actually read18, include19 the following:-
→ "Barash (David P.) - Animal magnetism", Barash
→ "Delgado (Mikel Maria) - Tidy birds and neat bees: on conscientiousness in animals", Delgado
→ "Edwards (Stassa) - From Aesop to doge", Edwards
→ "Hilborn (Anne) - Bad mothers and why they make a diﬀerence to cheetah survival", Hilborn
→ "Jawer (Michael) - Do only humans have souls, or do animals possess them too?", Jawer
→ "Martinho (Antone) - Pigs, parrots and people: the problem of animal personality", Martinho
→ "Rowlands (Mark) - The kindness of beasts", Rowlands
→ "Skillings (Derek J.) - Life is not easily bounded", Skillings
- "Bekoff (Marc) - The Emotional Lives of Animals: A Leading Scientist Explores Animal Joy, Sorrow, and Empathy and Why They Matter", Bekoff
- "Cavalieri (Paola) & Singer (Peter), Eds. - The Great Ape Project - Equality Beyond Humanity", Cavalieri
- "Chappell (Tim), Chappell (Sophie Grace) - In Defence of Speciesism", Oderberg
- "Conway Morris (Simon) - Darwin’s Compass: How Evolution Discovers the Song of Creation", Conway Morris
- "Conway Morris (Simon) - Life's Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe (Preface)", Conway Morris
- "De Waal (Frans) - The Whole Animal: Childhood Talismans and Excessive Fear of Anthropomorphism", De Waal
- "DeGrazia (David) - Great Apes, Dolphins, and the Concept of Personhood", DeGrazia
- "Fetzer (James) - The evolution of intelligence: TOC & Preface", Fetzer
- "Gallup (Gordon G.) - Animal Minds: Review", Gallup
- "Gallup (Gordon G.) - Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition", Gallup
- "Gallup (Gordon G.) - Levels, Limits, and Precursors to Self-Recognition: Does Ontogeny Recapitulate Phylogeny?", Gallup
- "Gallup (Gordon G.) - Self-Awareness in Primates: The sense of identity distinguishes man from most but perhaps not all other forms of life", Gallup
- "Gruen (Lori) - Ethics and Animals: An Introduction", Gruen
→ "Moss (Justin) - Review of 'Ethics and Animals: An Introduction' by Lori Gruen", Moss
- "Hauser (Marc D.) - Wild Minds: What Animals Really Think (Extract)", Hauser
- "Le Fanu (James) - Doubts About Darwin", Le Fanu
- "Le Fanu (James) - Flights of Fancy", Le Fanu
- "Le Fanu (James) - The Queen of Beasts", Le Fanu
- "Lurz (Robert) - Animal Minds", Lurz
- "Povinelli (Daniel) - Behind the Ape's Appearance: Escaping Anthropocentrism in the Study of Other Minds", Povinelli
- "Rachels (James) - Created From Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism", Rachels
- "Sheldrake (Rupert) - Dogs That Know When Their Owners are Coming Home: And Other Unexplained Powers of Animals", Sheldrake
- "Wilson (Jack) - Biological Individuality - The identity and Persistence of Living Entities", Wilson
- "Wolpert (Lewis) - Six Impossible Things Before Breakfast: Animals", Wolpert
- A reading list (where not covered elsewhere20) might start with:-
- "Bermudez (Jose Luis) - Thinking Without Words", Bermudez
- "Conway Morris (Simon) - Life's Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe", Conway Morris
- "Davidson (Donald) - Rational Animals", Davidson
- "Dawkins (Marian Stamp) - Through our Eyes Only? The Search for Animal Consciousness", Dawkins
- "De Waal (Frans) - Our Inner Ape: The Best and Worst of Human Nature", De Waal
- "De Waal (Frans) - Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved", De Waal
- "De Waal (Frans) - The Ape and the Sushi Master: Cultural Reflections of a Primatologist", De Waal
- "Desmond (Adrian) - The Ape's Reflexion", Desmond
- "Diamond (Jared) - The Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpanzee: How Our Animal Heritage Affects the Way We Live", Diamond
- "Fetzer (James) - The Evolution of Intelligence: Are Humans the Only Animals with Minds?", Fetzer
- "Griffin (Donald) - Animal Minds", Griffin
- "Hurley (Susan) & Nudds (Matthew) - Rational Animals?", Hurley&Nudds
- "Keehn (J.D.) - Animal Models for Psychiatry", Keehn
- "Le Fanu (James) - Why Us? How Science Rediscovered the Mystery of Ourselves", Le Fanu
- "Leiber (Justin) - Can Animals and Machines Be Persons? : A Dialogue", Leiber
- "Mery (Fernand) - Animal Language", Mery
- "Morris (Desmond) - Animalwatching: A Field Guide to Animal Behaviour", Morris
- "Rowlands (Mark) - The Philosopher and the Wolf", Rowlands
- "Savage-Rumbaugh (E.Sue) & Lewin (Roger) - Kanzi: Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind", Savage-Rumbaugh
- "Sober (Elliott) & Wilson (David) - Unto Others - The Evolution & Psychology of Unselfish Behaviour", Sober&Wilson
- "Suddendorf (Thomas) - The Gap", Suddendorf
- This is mostly a place-holder21. Currently, just see the categorised reading-list.
- This is the write-up as it was when this Abstract was last output, with text as at the timestamp indicated (29/01/2018 21:24:29).
- Link to Latest Write-Up Note.
- A number of my philosophical Notes are “promissory notes” currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned.
- I’ve decided to add some text – whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive – for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.
- As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance.
- The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists.
- Frequently I’ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note.
- In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time.
- In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course.
- My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I’ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage.
- I may have read others in between updates of this Note – in which case they will be marked as such in the “References and Reading List” below.
- Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected.
- Ie. excluding those already read.
- I’ve focused on books rather than papers.
Text Colour Conventions (see disclaimer)
- Blue: Text by me; © Theo Todman, 2018