<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Todman (Theo) - Thesis - Biological Criterion (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_17/PaperSummary_17771.htm">Thesis - Biological Criterion</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/T/Author_Todman (Theo).htm">Todman (Theo)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: </th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=400><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_17/PaperSummary_17771.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_911.htm">Link to Latest Write-Up Note</A></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><ul type="disc"><li>This pseudo-Paper is intended as the mechanism to record time spent on the Note '<a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_911.htm">Biological Criterion</A><SUP>1</SUP>' during my Thesis research, as from 2011. </li><li>For the actual time recorded, click on "Paper Summary" above. </li></ul><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><hr><br><B><u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17771_2">Write-up</A></U><SUB>2</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17771_2"></A></u> (as at 10/06/2018 19:12:00): Biological Criterion</B><BR><br><u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17771_3">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>3</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17771_3"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>This is the <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_904.htm">criterion of identity</A><SUP>4</SUP> associated with the <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_53.htm">biological view</A><SUP>5</SUP> of <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_734.htm">what we</A><SUP>6</SUP> <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_74.htm">human beings</A><SUP>7</SUP> are. </li><li><a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_24.htm">Animalism</A><SUP>8</SUP> takes this biological view, that we are human animals (as distinct from <a name="7"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_9.htm">persons</A><SUP>9</SUP>, or immaterial <a name="8"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_100.htm">souls</A><SUP>10</SUP>). So, our persistence criteria are those of animals. </li><li>What will fall under this Note is just what these criteria are. </li><li>Biological identity criteria in general are slightly wider than those of animals in particular, as they include those for plants and other biological <a name="9"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_113.htm">organisms</A><SUP>11</SUP>.</li><li><a name="10"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_83.htm">Locke</A><SUP>12</SUP> made the first stab at what this criterion might be. His view was that it was the participation in a single <a name="11"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_942.htm">life</A><SUP>13</SUP> that made an organism the same organism over time. The concept of a life is itself in need of explanation, and may not (in the absence of vitalism) be logically prior to the concept of an organism. </li><li>It seems to me that the biological criterion could (theoretically, at least) allow for <a name="12"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_37.htm">metamorphosis</A><SUP>14</SUP> (provided that the <a name="13"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_37.htm">metamorphosis</A><SUP>15</SUP> is into another organism). There are, however, <a name="14"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>16</SUP> objections to <a name="15"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_37.htm">metamorphosis</A><SUP>17</SUP>. </li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17771_18">Links</A></U><SUB>18</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17771_18"></A> to this Note, <a href="Notes_911_Links.htm">Click here</a>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17771_19">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>19</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17771_19"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17771_20">include</A></U><SUB>20</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17771_20"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li><a name="19"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7613.htm">Corcoran (Kevin) - Biology or Psychology? Human Persons and Personal Identity</A>", Corcoran</li><li><a name="20"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5807.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Are we essentially persons? Olson, Baker, and a reply</A>", DeGrazia</li><li><a name="21"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3512.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Biological Approach</A>", Olson</li><li><a name="22"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11993.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Ethics</A>", Shoemaker</li><li><a name="23"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3382.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Ethics: A Brief Introduction</A>", Shoemaker</li><li><a name="24"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1337.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Biological Individuality - The identity and Persistence of Living Entities</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17771_21">Wilson</A></U><SUB>21</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17771_21"></A></li></ol></li><li>The categorised reading-list below is of little use and in need of further research. It is somewhat arbitrary as to which books / papers fall under this topic, and which under <BR>&rarr; <a name="16"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_53.htm">Biological View</A><SUP>22</SUP> or <BR>&rarr; <a name="17"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_24.htm">Animalism</A><SUP>23</SUP>. </li><li>This is mostly a <a name="18"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_737.htm">place-holder</A><SUP>24</SUP>. </li></ul><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_P17771_2"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17771_2"><B>Footnote 2</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is the write-up as it was when this Abstract was last output, with text as at the timestamp indicated (10/06/2018 19:12:00). </li><li><A HREF = "../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_911.htm">Link to Latest Write-Up Note</A>. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_P17771_3"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17771_3"><B>Footnote 3</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_P17771_18"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17771_18"><B>Footnote 18</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P17771_19"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17771_19"><B>Footnote 19</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_P17771_20"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17771_20"><B>Footnote 20</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P17771_21"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17771_21"><B>Footnote 21</A></B></U>: The primary text addressing this topic. <BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-13T13:18" pubdate>13/08/2018 13:18:48</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>