- This pseudo-Paper is intended as the mechanism to record time spent on the Note 'Exdurantism1' during my Thesis research, as from 2011.
- For the actual time recorded, click on "Paper Summary" above.
Write-up2 (as at 14/07/2018 00:23:02): Exdurantism
- What follows is a modified version of a write-up4 of the relevant section of "Kurtz (Roxanne) - Introduction to Persistence: What’s the Problem?".
- Exdurantism is otherwise known as Stage Theory and Kurtz describes it as analogous to identity5 between possible worlds. Just as an object might have had incompatible properties – and this is cashed out as a counterpart in a possible world having these properties – so a temporal counterpart stage of the object has them. The objects with incompatible properties are, in both cases, non-identical counterparts of one another. So, the exdurantist then contends that change over time is nothing more than an object and its temporal counterpart having incompatible properties and existing at different moments in the actual world.
- Exdurantists have it that an object is numerically identical to a single stage, and is wholly present at the moment it exists. In contrast to Perdurance6, according to Exdurantists, objects persist when they exdure, and exdure by changing over time. An object changes over time, then, when it and a counterpart stage just have7 incompatible properties. Consequently, an exduring object does not – strictly speaking – survive change.
- The primary proponents of Exdurance are Ted Sider. and Katherine Hawley.
- Acording to Exdurance, an object undergoes change when it and a counterpart “just have” incompatible properties. It persists when it changes over time by standing in the counterpart relation8 to a stage from a different time. As no single thing has incompatible properties (different stages are different objects), Exdurantism satisfies the demands of consistency.
- Exdurantism has the advantage over Perdurantism in that it’s the object itself that “just has” its properties, rather than a (temporal) part of the object. However, just like Perdurantism, Exdurantism rules out change as is commonly understood. In both cases, it’s just different stages that have the incompatible property, not one and the same whole object.
- But, Exdurantism does much worse over survival, in that an exduring object doesn’t survive, as the different stages are different objects. At best, an exduring object “continues” in some way, but the momentary stages are no more identical than are links in a chain.
- For a page of Links9 to this Note, Click here.
- Works on this topic that I’ve actually read10, include11 the following:-
- "Arnold (Keith) - The Subject of Radical Change", Arnold
- "Hawley (Katherine) - How Things Persist: Introduction", Hawley
- "Kurtz (Roxanne) - Introduction to Persistence: What’s the Problem?", Hawley
- "Sider (Ted) - In Favour of Four-Dimensionalism, Part 2: The Best Unified Theory of the Paradoxes of Coincidence", Sider
- "Wilson (Jack) - Beyond Horses and Oak Trees: A New Theory of Individuation for Living Entities", Wilson
- A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:-
- "Balashov (Yuri) - On Stages, Worms, and Relativity", Balashov
- "Balashov (Yuri) - Times of our Lives: Negotiating the Presence of Experience", Balashov
- "Botros (Sophie) - Tense Theory", Botros
- "Bruntrup (Godehard) - 3.5-Dimensionalism and Survival: A Process Ontological Approach", Bruntrup
- "Eagle (Anthony) - Reply to Stone on Counterpart Theory and Four-dimensionalism", Eagle
- "Haslanger (Sally) - Persistence Through Time", Haslanger
- "Hawley (Katherine) - David Lewis on Persistence", Hawley
- "Hawley (Katherine) - Parts and Stages", Hawley
- "Hawley (Katherine) - Review of Ted Sider's Four-Dimensionalism", Hawley
- "Hawley (Katherine) - Selections from 'How Things Persist'", Hawley
- "Hawley (Katherine) - Sticking Stages Together", Hawley
- "Miller (Kristie) - Defining Our Terms", Miller
- "Olson (Eric) - What Are We? Bundles", Olson
- "Olson (Eric) - What Are We? Temporal Parts", Olson
- "Schmechtig (Pedro) - Zeit und Persistenz", Schmechtig
- "Sider (Ted) - All the World's a Stage", Sider
- "Sider (Ted) - Persistence and Parthood Seminar", Sider12
- "Sider (Ted) - Temporal Parts", Sider
- "Sider (Ted) - The Stage View and Temporary Intrinsics", Sider
- "Simons (Peter) - How To Exist at a Time When You Have No Temporal Parts", Simons
- "Varzi (Achille) - Naming The Stages", Varzi.
- This is mostly a place-holder13.
- This is the write-up as it was when this Abstract was last output, with text as at the timestamp indicated (14/07/2018 00:23:02).
- Link to Latest Write-Up Note.
- A number of my philosophical Notes are “promissory notes” currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned.
- I’ve decided to add some text – whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive – for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.
- As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance.
- The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists.
- “Identity” is, strictly speaking, the wrong term, if the counterparts are non-identical.
- Just Having (a property) is a term of art.
- To quote Kurtz: an object just has a property if and only if no extrinsic facts are relevant to the truth of the proposition that the object has that property.
- Just Having a property is a slightly tricky concept, and "Lewis (David) - Rearrangement of Particles: Reply to Lowe" is invoked, which refers to non-relational changes (the example is of changing your shape by sitting, etc.).
- Just how is this “Counterpart Relation” cashed out?
- If only a “non-updating” run has been made, the links are only one-way – ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven’t yet been confirmed as relevant.
- Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the “Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note” and “Summary of Note Links to this Page” sections) are to the “point of link” within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the “links page” remain generic.
- There are two sorts of updating runs – for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run.
- Frequently I’ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note.
- In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time.
- In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course.
- My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I’ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage.
- I may have read others in between updates of this Note – in which case they will be marked as such in the “References and Reading List” below.
- Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected.
- This is itself a reading list, not all of which is strictly relevant to exdurantism.
Text Colour Conventions (see disclaimer)
- Blue: Text by me; © Theo Todman, 2018
- Mauve: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); © the author(s)