<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Todman (Theo) - Thesis - Human Beings (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_17/PaperSummary_17825.htm">Thesis - Human Beings</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/T/Author_Todman (Theo).htm">Todman (Theo)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: </th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=400><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_17/PaperSummary_17825.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_74.htm">Link to Latest Write-Up Note</A></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><ul type="disc"><li>This pseudo-Paper is intended as the mechanism to record time spent on the Note '<a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_74.htm">Human Beings</A><SUP>1</SUP>' during my Thesis research, as from 2011. </li><li>For the actual time recorded, click on "Paper Summary" above. </li></ul><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><hr><br><B><u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17825_2">Write-up</A></U><SUB>2</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17825_2"></A></u> (as at 27/02/2018 23:58:34): Human Beings</B><BR><br><u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17825_3">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>3</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17825_3"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>Is there is a  real or formal  difference between <u>human beings</u> and <ol type="i"><li><a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_30.htm">human animals</A><SUP>4</SUP>, </li><li>members of the species <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_11.htm">homo sapiens</A><SUP>5</SUP> and </li><li><a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_113.htm">human organisms</A><SUP>6</SUP>? </li></ol></li><li>I assume there s a distinction between a human being and a <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_75.htm">human person</A><SUP>7</SUP>, as  <a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_9.htm">person</A><SUP>8</SUP> is an honorific and  I claim  human persons are <a name="7"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_29.htm">phase sortals</A><SUP>9</SUP> of human animals. </li><li>For the primary argument proposing that  we are human beings, see the work of <a name="48"></a><A HREF = "../../Authors/J/Author_Johnston (Mark).htm">Mark Johnston</A>, in particular <ol type="i"><li><a name="25"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_262.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Human Beings</A>",</li><li><a name="26"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4294.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Reasons and Reductionism</A>", and</li><li><a name="27"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18375.htm">Johnston (Mark) - 'Human Beings' Revisited: My Body is Not an Animal</A>". </li></ol></li><li>Johnston s view is that human beings are <a name="8"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_62.htm">constituted by</A><SUP>10</SUP> <a name="9"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_18.htm">human bodies</A><SUP>11</SUP>. I have two comments on this:- <ol type="i"><li>This superficially sounds like <a name="10"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_869.htm">Baker</A><SUP>12</SUP> s <a name="11"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_25.htm">Constitution View</A><SUP>13</SUP>. However, Johnston doesn t think the human person is separable from the human brain/body as in the case of Baker s reified <a name="12"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_22.htm">FPP</A><SUP>14</SUP>.</li><li>Despite this, Johnston doesn t think that we are (identical to) human animals. </li></ol></li><li>Johnston tries to tread a middle course between <a name="13"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_24.htm">animalism</A><SUP>15</SUP> and the <a name="14"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_114.htm">psychological view</A><SUP>16</SUP>. <ol type="i"><li>He wants to be a naturalist  accepting the modern scientific world-picture and rejecting <a name="15"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_124.htm">dualism</A><SUP>17</SUP>. </li><li>However, because he thinks that <a name="16"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_108.htm">what matters</A><SUP>18</SUP> to us is our mental life, he considers us to be a locus of mental life. </li><li>But, this locus is not  inchoate or  bare but has to be provided by our organ of mentation  namely the <a name="17"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_55.htm">brain</A><SUP>19</SUP>. </li><li>Where he differs from the <a name="18"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_50.htm">animalists</A><SUP>20</SUP> is in his response to the <a name="19"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_763.htm">brain transplant intuition</A><SUP>21</SUP> (BTI). </li></ol></li><li>So, for Johnston, a human being is  for usual practical purposes  a human organism, but is only  constituted by one  it is not identical to one, for two reasons:- <ol type="i"><li>He  along with most people  accepts the BTI, so he thinks you can be  pared down to a  mere brain and then transplanted into another human body. That human being would then be you. Also, like <a name="20"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_868.htm">Olson</A><SUP>22</SUP>, he doesn t think  mere brains are <a name="21"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_113.htm">organisms</A><SUP>23</SUP>; but  unlike Olson  he doesn t consider the human brain to be  just another organ . </li><li>Further, he thinks a human being is necessarily capable of appropriate mental activity. So, in the case of you falling into a <a name="22"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_111.htm">PVS</A><SUP>24</SUP>, you  the human being  could be outlived by your human animal. </li></ol></li><li>Thus  for Johnston   human being is a rather odd concept: it is a locus of mentation, naturally embodied and not portable other than by transplanting the organ of mentation. The brain isn t a mere organ, but  if transplanted or a <a name="23"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_56.htm">BIV</A><SUP>25</SUP>  a maximally mutilated human being. </li><li>At the moment, I still incline towards animalism  that we are human animals; and that we can survive total and irrevocable loss of mentation, though in the process we also lose all that matters to us. </li><li>Also, I think that there s only a difference of emphasis or terminology between  human being ,  human animal and  human organism . </li><li>This (probably) commits me to arguing that a disembodied human brain is a maximally-mutilated human animal. </li><li>In the reading-lists below, I ve included some items on  Human Nature , including Christian takes on the matter, though I don t want to get too diverted into matters of anthropology and evolutionary psychology. </li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17825_26">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>26</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17825_26"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17825_27">include</A></U><SUB>27</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17825_27"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li><a name="28"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_11/Abstract_11442.htm">Gillett (Grant) - Young Human Beings: Metaphysics and Ethics</A>", Gillett</li><li><a name="29"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_262.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Human Beings</A>", Johnston</li><li><a name="30"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22018.htm">Madden (Rory) - Human Persistence</A>", Madden</li><li><a name="31"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21054.htm">Madden (Rory) - The Place of The Self in Contemporary Metaphysics</A>", Madden</li><li><a name="32"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7825.htm">Oderberg (David) - Johnston on Human Beings</A>", Oderberg</li><li><a name="33"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3509.htm">Olson (Eric) - Why We Need Not Accept the Psychological Approach</A>", Olson</li><li><a name="34"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21001.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - Persons, Animals, Ourselves: Introduction</A>", Snowdon</li><li><a name="35"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21029.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - The Self and Personal Identity</A>", Snowdon</li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li><a name="36"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20381.htm">Adams (E.M.) - On Being a Human Being</A>", Adams</li><li><a name="37"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_12/PaperSummary_12816.htm">Anscombe (G.E.M.) - Human Essence</A>", Anscombe</li><li><a name="38"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_12/PaperSummary_12820.htm">Anscombe (G.E.M.) - The Dignity of the Human Being</A>", Anscombe</li><li><a name="49"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_571.htm">Cockburn (David), Ed. - Human Beings</A>", <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17825_28">Cockburn</A></U><SUB>28</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17825_28"></A><BR>&rarr; <a name="39"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2629.htm">Graham (Gordon) - Review of David Cockburn's 'Human Beings'</A>", </li><li><a name="50"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2304.htm">Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting: Biblical Anthropology and the Monism-dualism Debate</A>", Cooper</li><li><a name="51"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6335.htm">Corcoran (Kevin) - Rethinking Human Nature: A Christian Materialist Alternative to the Soul</A>", Corcoran</li><li><a name="40"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21019.htm">Dupre (John) - On Human Nature</A>", Dupre</li><li><a name="52"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6633.htm">Egonsson (Dan) - Dimensions of Dignity: The Moral Importance of Being Human</A>", Egonsson</li><li><a name="41"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_13/Abstract_13212.htm">Green (Joel B.) - Restoring the Human Person: New Testament Voices for a Wholistic and Social Anthropology</A>", Green</li><li><a name="42"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6650.htm">Heyd (David) - Human Nature: An Oxymoron?</A>", Heyd</li><li><a name="43"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18375.htm">Johnston (Mark) - 'Human Beings' Revisited: My Body is Not an Animal</A>", Johnston</li><li><a name="44"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_22/Abstract_22816.htm">Liu (Irene) - Elevating Human Being: Towards a New Sort of Naturalism</A>", Liu</li><li><a name="45"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20709.htm">Parfit (Derek) - We Are Not Human Beings</A>", Parfit</li><li><a name="46"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20583.htm">Post (John F.) - Metaphysics and Human Being</A>", Post</li><li><a name="47"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18374.htm">Robinson (Denis) - Human Beings, Human Animals, and Mentalistic Survival</A>", Robinson</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="24"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_737.htm">place-holder</A><SUP>29</SUP>. </li></ul><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_P17825_2"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17825_2"><B>Footnote 2</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is the write-up as it was when this Abstract was last output, with text as at the timestamp indicated (27/02/2018 23:58:34). </li><li><A HREF = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_74.htm">Link to Latest Write-Up Note</A>. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_P17825_3"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17825_3"><B>Footnote 3</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_P17825_26"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17825_26"><B>Footnote 26</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_P17825_27"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17825_27"><B>Footnote 27</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P17825_28"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17825_28"><B>Footnote 28</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>I ve not listed the essays appearing in this collection. </li></ul> <FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; 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