<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Todman (Theo) - Thesis - Phase Sortals (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_17/PaperSummary_17862.htm">Thesis - Phase Sortals</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/T/Author_Todman (Theo).htm">Todman (Theo)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: </th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=400><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_17/PaperSummary_17862.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_29.htm">Link to Latest Write-Up Note</A></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><ul type="disc"><li>This pseudo-Paper is intended as the mechanism to record time spent on the Note '<a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_29.htm">Phase Sortals</A><SUP>1</SUP>' during my Thesis research, as from 2011. </li><li>For the actual time recorded, click on "Paper Summary" above. </li></ul><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><hr><br><B><u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17862_2">Write-up</A></U><SUB>2</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17862_2"></A></u> (as at 01/05/2018 00:46:05): Phase Sortals</B><BR><br><u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17862_3">Plug Note</A></U><SUB>3</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17862_3"></A></u><ul type="disc"><li>See under <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">Sortals</A><SUP>4</SUP> for the introduction of the concept Phase Sortal. I seem to have misappropriated the term. In its standard usage (I am told), a phase sortal is a biologically-motivated term. The clearest examples are of individuals that <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_37.htm">metamorphose</A><SUP>5</SUP>; for example the butterfly: egg to larva (caterpillar) to pupa (chrysalis) to adult (butterfly). The caterpillar is a phase sortal of the organism, with clear spatio-temporal boundaries. My standard example is of Child, which is a (vaguely-boundaried) biological phase of the substance sortal <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_74.htm">Human Being</A><SUP>6</SUP>. </li><li>An example of a possible human phase sortal that is a non-person is Infant. This example might be especially relevant to the topic, because  infant is derived from the Latin in-fans  without speech , and the capacity for speech is often claimed to be an essential prerequisite for being a <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_9.htm">person</A><SUP>7</SUP>. </li><li>Any suggestion that the concept Person is  no more than a phase sortal of an umbrella concept isn t intended to imply unimportance. Rather, simply that persons might not form a <a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_80.htm">kind</A><SUP>8</SUP> (and in particular a <a name="7"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kind</A><SUP>9</SUP>), nor be <a name="8"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_101.htm">substances</A><SUP>10</SUP>, but that personhood might be a <a name="9"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_93.htm">property</A><SUP>11</SUP> of substances (of <a name="10"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_30.htm">animals</A><SUP>12</SUP>, for instance). </li><li>What about  periodic phase sortals such as Student? A human being can  pop in and out of studenthood by registering or deregistering, but he can t do this with childhood. Which model suits personhood? See the discussion of <a name="11"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_78.htm">intermittent objects</A><SUP>13</SUP>. </li><li>However, if the above suggestion that the concept Phase Sortal is biologically motivated is correct, a purely social concept such as Student is not a phase sortal in this sense, and Person might not be either. I could, of course, invent a new term of art.</li><li>All roads seem to lead to <a name="12"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_109.htm">Wiggins</A><SUP>14</SUP> (<a name="28"></a><A HREF = "../../Authors/S/Author_Snowdon (Paul).htm">Paul Snowdon</A> refers to him a lot in the context of <a name="13"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_24.htm">Animalism</A><SUP>15</SUP>, though I seem to remember that <a name="29"></a><A HREF = "../../Authors/O/Author_Olson (Eric).htm">Eric Olson</A> thinks Wiggins isn t a true Animalist, but a supporter of the <a name="14"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_114.htm">psychological view</A><SUP>16</SUP>). </li><li>For a page of <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17862_17">Links</A></U><SUB>17</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17862_17"></A> to this Note, <a href="Notes_29_Links.htm">Click here</a>.</li><li>Works on this topic that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17862_18">I ve actually read</A></U><SUB>18</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17862_18"></A>, <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P17862_19">include</A></U><SUB>19</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P17862_19"></A> the following:- <ol type="i"><li><a name="16"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_07/Abstract_7312.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - When Do Persons Begin and End?</A>", Baker</li><li><a name="17"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3741.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Animalism and Reductionism</A>", Garrett</li><li><a name="18"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21125.htm">Hershenov (David) - Review of Nancy Murphy's 'Bodies and Souls, or Spirited Bodies?'</A>", Hershenov</li><li><a name="19"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5910.htm">Lockwood (Michael) - When Does a Life Begin?</A>", Lockwood</li><li><a name="20"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3508.htm">Olson (Eric) - Persistence</A>", Olson</li><li><a name="21"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3507.htm">Olson (Eric) - Psychology and Personal Identity</A>", Olson</li><li><a name="22"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5138.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Beyond Horses and Oak Trees: A New Theory of Individuation for Living Entities</A>", Wilson</li></ol></li><li>A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:- <ol type="i"><li><a name="23"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5099.htm">Campbell (Scott) - Persons and Substances</A>", Campbell</li><li><a name="24"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5851.htm">Price (Marjorie) - Identity Through Time</A>", Price</li><li><a name="25"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5481.htm">Wiggins (David) - Metaphysics: Substance</A>", Wiggins</li><li><a name="30"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_54.htm">Wiggins (David) - Sameness and Substance</A>", Wiggins, especially<BR>&rarr; <a name="26"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3491.htm">Wiggins (David) - The Absoluteness of Sameness (S&S)</A>" and<BR>&rarr; <a name="27"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3492.htm">Wiggins (David) - Outline of a Theory of Individuation (S&S)</A>"</li></ol></li><li>This is mostly a <a name="15"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_737.htm">place-holder</A><SUP>20</SUP>. </li></ul><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_P17862_2"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17862_2"><B>Footnote 2</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is the write-up as it was when this Abstract was last output, with text as at the timestamp indicated (01/05/2018 00:46:05). </li><li><A HREF = "../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_29.htm">Link to Latest Write-Up Note</A>. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_P17862_3"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17862_3"><B>Footnote 3</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>A number of my philosophical Notes are  promissory notes currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned. </li><li>I ve decided to add some text  whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive  for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.</li><li>As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance. </li><li>The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_P17862_17"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17862_17"><B>Footnote 17</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>If only a  non-updating run has been made, the links are only one-way  ie. from the page of links to the objects that reference this Note by mentioning the appropriate key-word(s). The links are also only indicative, as they haven t yet been confirmed as relevant. </li><li>Once an updating run has been made, links are both ways, and links from this Notes page (from the  Authors, Books & Papers Citing this Note and  Summary of Note Links to this Page sections) are to the  point of link within the page rather than to the page generically. Links from the  links page remain generic. </li><li>There are two sorts of updating runs  for Notes and other Objects. The reason for this is that Notes are archived, and too many archived versions would be created if this process were repeatedly run. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P17862_18"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17862_18"><B>Footnote 18</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Frequently I ll have made copious marginal annotations, and sometimes have written up a review-note. </li><li>In the former case, I intend to transfer the annotations into electronic form as soon as I can find the time. </li><li>In the latter case, I will have remarked on the fact against the citation, and will integrate the comments into this Note in due course. </li><li>My intention is to incorporate into these Notes comments on material I ve already read rather than engage with unread material at this stage. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_P17862_19"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P17862_19"><B>Footnote 19</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>I may have read others in between updates of this Note  in which case they will be marked as such in the  References and Reading List below.</li><li>Papers or Books partially read have a rough %age based on the time spent versus the time expected. </li></ul> <FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-17T12:11" pubdate>17/08/2018 12:11:02</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>