<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Stone (Jim) - Why Sortal Essentialism Cannot Solve Chrysippus's Puzzle (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_19/PaperSummary_19951.htm">Why Sortal Essentialism Cannot Solve Chrysippus's Puzzle</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/S/Author_Stone (Jim).htm">Stone (Jim)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Analysis, Vol. 62, No. 3 (Jul., 2002), pp. 216-223</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=800><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_19/PaperSummary_19951.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_19/PaperCitings_19951.htm">Books / Papers Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_19/PapersToNotes_19951.htm">Notes Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Author s Introduction</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>The Stoic philosopher, Chrysippus, posed this puzzle. <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_871.htm">Dion</A><SUP>1</SUP>, a whole- bodied man, has a proper part, Theon, which consists of all of <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_871.htm">Dion</A><SUP>2</SUP> except <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_871.htm">Dion</A><SUP>3</SUP>'s left foot. This morning <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_871.htm">Dion</A><SUP>4</SUP>'s left foot was amputated. If <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_871.htm">Dion and Theon</A><SUP>5</SUP> both survive there are two material objects coincident in space and time, and made of the same matter! Which has ceased to exist? Not <a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_871.htm">Dion</A><SUP>6</SUP> - a man can survive the loss of a foot. Not Theon, which has had no part chopped off. Given the <a name="7"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_81.htm">Indiscernibility of Identicals</A><SUP>7</SUP>, we cannot say that <a name="8"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_871.htm">Dion and Theon</A><SUP>8</SUP> have merged into one thing, for it can be said truly of <a name="9"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_871.htm">Dion</A><SUP>9</SUP>, but not of Theon, that yesterday he was bigger than Theon. Chrysippus's puzzle threatens us with distinct material objects in the same time and place, a consequence that many (but, as we will see later, not all) philosophers find incredible. </li><li><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P19951_10">Michael Burke's essentialist response</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P19951_10"></A> to Chrysippus's puzzle has been widely discussed, but the chief reason his solution must fail has gone unnoticed. In what follows I will argue that to deploy <a name="10"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>11</SUP> essentialism against Chrysippus as Burke does is to deprive it of its motivation and plausibility. More important, this paper will clarify the central thesis of <a name="11"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>12</SUP> essentialism - at least as it applies to the biological kinds which inspired it - as well as its relation to the much discussed 'constitution' relation. Two versions of <a name="12"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>13</SUP> essentialism emerge, 'brittle' and 'relaxed,' neither of which can solve Chrysippus's puzzle. This may discourage philosophers who hope to deploy essentialism against Chrysippus, but it will encourage those who believe in the viability of <a name="13"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>14</SUP> essentialism or wish to better understand it. </li></ol></FONT><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_P19951_10"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P19951_10"><B>Footnote 10</B></A></U>: See <a name="14"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4301.htm">Burke (Michael) - Dion and Theon: An Essentialist Solution to an Ancient Puzzle</A>". <BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T09:11" pubdate>02/08/2018 09:11:37</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>