Memory and Consciousness
Gray (Peter)
Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 9
Paper - Abstract

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Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 9, students should be able to:

  1. Describe the function, capacity, and duration of sensory, working, and long-term memory in the modal1 model.
  2. Distinguish between working and long-term memory, and how the control processes of attention, encoding, and retrieval move information between memory stores.
  3. Describe the preattentive processing model of attention.
  4. Explain how studies of selective listening and selective viewing demonstrate people's ability to attend to, and monitor, relevant and irrelevant stimuli.
  5. Describe the effect of practice on the ability to divide attention, making sure to mention Green and Baveller’s research with video games.
  6. Outline Baddeley's three proposed components of working memory, citing the evidence for each.
  7. Discuss the evidence for and against the role of repetition in encoding into long-term memory.
  8. Discuss the evidence that thinking deeply about something makes it more likely to be encoded into long-term memory.
  9. Explain how organization and visualization can improve memory.
  10. Contrast retroactive and proactive interference, as causes of forgetting, and describe the conditions under which these effects are most likely to occur.
  11. Explain why association by contiguity and similarity seem to be useful for understanding the organization of knowledge, and describe the spreading-activation network model of memory.
  12. Describe evidence that cues that were prominent during original encoding are most useful as retrieval cues and how environmental context can affect memory by providing retrieval cues.
  13. Explain the effect of construction on memory, including the roles of schemas and subsequent misleading information, and discuss whether hypnosis affects memory.
  14. Compare and contrast explicit and implicit memory, noting the varieties of implicit memory.
  15. Discuss the neuropsychological evidence for multiple memory systems.


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