Reasoning and Intelligence
Gray (Peter)
Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 10
Paper - Abstract

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Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 10, students should be able to:

  1. Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning, identifying typical biases involved in inductive reasoning and outlining the role of mental models and pragmatic reasoning schemas in deductive reasoning.
  2. Identify and discuss some strategies for making problem solving easier, including algorithms and heuristics.
  3. Discuss the theory of linguistic relativity, and cite some research that supports it.
  4. Explain how the wording of a problem or question can shape people’s reasoning ability.
  5. Discuss the meaning of IQ1 and how the issue of validity applies to intelligence tests.
  6. Specify and compare how Galton and Binet approached the task of defining and measuring intelligence.
  7. Describe Spearman’s theory of intelligence and how this theory was modified by Cattell.
  8. Outline the differences between fluid and crystallized intelligence.
  9. Explain what is meant by heritability and environmentality, discuss the research that assesses the contributions of genetic and environmental variability to variances in IQ2, and explain the limitations of heritability coefficients in inferring differences.
  10. Describe research evidence for the multiplicity of intelligence.
  11. Explain the ecological perspective on intelligence, and cite evidence demonstrating the relevance of this approach.


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  1. Blue: Text by me; © Theo Todman, 2021
  2. Mauve: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); © the author(s)

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