<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Peschard (Isabelle) & Van Fraassen (Bas) - Identity over Time: Objectively, Subjectively (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_20/PaperSummary_20364.htm">Identity over Time: Objectively, Subjectively</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/P/Author_Peschard (Isabelle).htm">Peschard (Isabelle)</a> & <A HREF = "../../Authors/V/Author_Van Fraassen (Bas).htm">Van Fraassen (Bas)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 58, No. 230, Special Issue: Existence and Identity (Jan., 2008), pp. 15-35</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=600><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_20/PaperSummary_20364.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_20/PapersToNotes_20364.htm">Notes Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Author s Abstract</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>In the philosophy of science, identity over time emerges as a central concern both as an ontological category in the interpretation of physical theories, and as an epistemological problem concerning the conditions of possibility of knowledge. </li><li>In Reichenbach and subsequent writers on the problem of indistinguishable quantum particles we see the return of a contrast between Leibniz and Aquinas on the subject of <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>1</SUP>. </li><li>The possibility of rejecting the principle of the <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_81.htm">identity of indiscernibles</A><SUP>2</SUP> has certain logical difficulties, leading us inexorably from ontology into epistemology. For the epistemological problem we attend to the differences that emerged between the (neo-)Kantian and logical empiricist traditions, also saliently displayed in Reichenbach s writings. </li><li>After examining the contrast between Kant's and Leibniz s conceptions of empirical knowledge, specifically with respect to the irreducibility of spatiotemporal determinations, we explore an application of a neo-Kantian view to the same problem of indistinguishable quantum particles. </li></ol> </FONT><BR><U>Author s Introduction</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Arguments and views concerning identity and <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>3</SUP> resurfaced in the twentieth century in philosophical discussion of quantum mechanics connected with discernibility. </li><li>Much dealt mainly with the <em>conditions of possibility of being</em>, that is, the conditions under which named or described entities are identical or distinct. </li><li>Beginning with Kant, however, traditional questions of metaphysics were transposed into a transcendental enquiry, that is, enquiry into the <em>conditions of possibility of knowledge</em>. </li><li>Accordingly, we shall address this topic in two parts. <ul type="disc"><li><b>I. CONDITIONS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF BEING</b>: In general, the conditions under which something can be the case are not the same as those under which it can be known to be the case. It does not follow that something can be the case even if there are no possible conditions under which it can be known to be so. But the distinction suffices to allow us to start with the former. In doing so, we may engage in realist metaphysics - or, on the contrary, bring realism's limits to light. </li><li><b>II. CONDITIONS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF KNOWLEDGE</b>: Kant wrote that we precipitate ourselves 'into darkness and contradictions' by seemingly unobjectionable steps that 'transcend the limits of experience, [and so] are no longer subject to any empirical test'. The form of metaphysics he thus criticized can be avoided by turning instead to a transcendental enquiry, an enquiry into the conditions of the possibility of knowledge in a given subject area, with reference to both experience and understanding.</li></ul> </li></ol> </FONT><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T09:18" pubdate>02/08/2018 09:18:12</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>