<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Plantinga (Alvin) - Modalities: Basic Concepts and Distinctions (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_20/PaperSummary_20410.htm">Modalities: Basic Concepts and Distinctions</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/P/Author_Plantinga (Alvin).htm">Plantinga (Alvin)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Kim, Jaegwon, Daniel Korman, and Ernest Sosa, eds. 2012. Metaphysics: An Anthology, Second Edition. (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell); pp. 135-140</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=600><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_20/PaperSummary_20410.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_20/PaperCitings_20410.htm">Books / Papers Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Author s <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20410_1">Conclusion</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20410_1"></A></U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Like Aristotle, then, Aquinas appears to believe that <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>2</SUP> statements are of two kinds. Some predicate a <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>3</SUP> of another statement <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">(modality</A><SUP>4</SUP> <em>de dicto</em>); but others predicate of an object the necessary or essential possession of a property; and these latter express <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>5</SUP> <em>de re</em>.</li><li> The distinction between <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>6</SUP> <em>de re</em> and <a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>7</SUP> <em>de dicto</em> is not confined to ancient and medieval philosophy. G. E. Moore discusses the idealistic doctrine of internal relations; he concludes that it is false or confused or perhaps both. What is presently interesting is that he takes this doctrine to be the claim that all relational properties are <em>internal</em>  which claim, he thinks, is just the proposition that every object has each of its relational properties essentially in the above sense. The doctrine of internal relations, he says, 'implies, in fact, quite generally, that any term which does in fact have a particular relational property, could not have existed without having that property. And in saying this it obviously flies in the face of common sense. It seems quite obvious that in the case of many relational properties which things have, the fact that they have them is a mere matter of fact that the things in question might have existed without having them.' Now Moore is prepared to concede that objects do have some of their relational properties essentially. Like Aristotle and Aquinas, therefore, Moore holds that some objects have some of their properties essentially and others non-essentially or accidentally. </li><li>There is a prima facie distinction, then, between <a name="7"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>8</SUP> <em>de dicto</em> and <a name="8"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>9</SUP> <em>de re</em>. This distinction, furthermore, has a long and distinguished history. Many contemporary philosophers who find the idea of <a name="9"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>10</SUP> <em>de dicto</em> tolerably clear however, look utterly askance at that of <a name="10"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>11</SUP> <em>de re</em>, suspecting it a source of boundless confusion. Indeed, there is abroad the subtle suggestion that the idea of <a name="11"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>12</SUP> <em>de re</em> is not so much confused as vaguely immoral or frivolous as if to accept or employ it is to be guilty of neglecting serious work in favour of sporting with Amaryllis in the <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20410_13">shade</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20410_13"></A>. In the next section, therefore, we shall examine objections to <a name="12"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>14</SUP> <em>de re</em>.</li></ol></FONT><hr><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>Comment: </B><ul type="disc"><li>I ve only got Section 1: Preliminary Distinctions and Remarks; obtained from <a name="W2344W"></a><A HREF = "http://www.uvm.edu/~lderosse/courses/metaph/PlantingaOnNecessity.pdf" TARGET = "_top">Link</A>. </li><li>See <a name="13"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20394.htm">Funkhouser (Eric) - Notes on Plantinga,  Modalities: Basic Concepts and Distinctions </A>" for Notes. </li><li>Also, see <a name="14"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20467.htm">Leibowitz (Alex) - Notes on Plantinga,  Modalities: Basic Concepts and Distinctions </A>" for further discussion. The author is based in Shandong, China, but is associated in some way with UCSB (presumably University of California, Santa Barbara). This may or may not be a cogent critique  I ve not studied it. </li></ul><BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_P20410_1"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20410_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: To Section 1, prefixed by some excerpts to establish the context. <a name="On-Page_Link_P20410_13"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20410_13"><B>Footnote 13</B></A></U>: This appears to be a quotation from Milton s <em>Lycidas</em>: See <a name="W2343W"></a><A HREF = "http://www.bartleby.com/101/317.html" TARGET = "_top">Link</A>, line 68. <BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-03T00:12" pubdate>03/08/2018 00:12:50</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>