<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Olson (Eric) - Personal Identity - Oxford Bibliographies Online (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_20/PaperSummary_20784.htm">Personal Identity - Oxford Bibliographies Online</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/O/Author_Olson (Eric).htm">Olson (Eric)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Oxford Bibliographies Online / Sheffield University website</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=600><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_20/PaperSummary_20784.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_20/PapersToNotes_20784.htm">Notes Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1260.htm">Link to Latest Write-Up Note</A></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>Comment: </B><ul type="disc"><li>These get updated from time to time. </li><li>I've found my copies on the Sheffield University Website. <BR>&rarr; For 2011: see <a name="W2447W"></a><A HREF = "https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/polopoly_fs/1.373000!/file/obo.pdf" TARGET = "_top">Link</A>,<BR>&rarr; For 2017: See <a name="W5873W"></a><A HREF = "https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/polopoly_fs/1.696336!/file/OBO17.pdf" TARGET = "_top">Link</A> </li></ul><BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><hr><br><B><u><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_1">Write-up</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_1"></A></u> (as at 21/04/2018 20:05:17): Olson - Personal Identity - Oxford Bibliographies Online</B><BR><br><u><b>Notes</b></u><ul type="disc"><li>This note provides my detailed review of <a name="13"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20784.htm">Olson (Eric) - Personal Identity - Oxford Bibliographies Online</A>". Currently, it s mostly a transcription of Olson s 2017 text, with links to my own database of books / papers, plus a few footnotes. </li><li>It was comforting to find that I already had the vast bulk of the works cited in this bibliography, and that my studies are aligned fairly well with what Olson thinks important on the topic. </li><li>I have been able to find all the once missing items, with one unimportant exception.</li><li>I ve left Olson s text alone. Links to my stuff are indicated by arrows (&rarr;) or footnotes. </li></ul><BR><BR><hr><BR><h3>Links to Topics on this Page</h3><CENTER><TABLE Class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950><TR><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#Introduction">Introduction</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#GeneralOverviews">General Overviews</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#Textbooks">Textbooks</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#Bibliographies">Bibliographies</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a></TD></TR><TR><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#HistoricalSources">Historical Sources</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#EvidenceAndMeaning">Evidence and Meaning</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#Psychological-ContinuityAccounts">Psychological-Continuity Accounts</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#ExtrinsicnessAndBest-CandidateTheories">Extrinsicness and Best-Candidate Theories</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#BodilyCriterion">The Bodily Criterion</a></TD></TR><TR><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#Anticriterialism">Anticriterialism</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#WhatMattersInIdentity">What Matters in Identity</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#NarrativeConceptionsOfPersonalIdentity">Narrative Conceptions of Personal Identity</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#PersonalOntology">Personal Ontology</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#Animalism">Animalism</a></TD></TR><TR><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#SynchronicIdentity">Synchronic Identity</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%"><a href="#Personhood">Personhood</a></TD><td WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD><td WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD><td WIDTH="20%">&nbsp;</TD></TR></TABLE></CENTER><BR><hr><BR><a id="Introduction"></a><FONT COLOR = "800080"><u><b>Introduction</b></u><ol type="1"><li>The term  personal identity means different things to different people. </li><li>Psychologists use it to refer to a person s self-image - to one s beliefs about the sort of person one is and how one differs from others. </li><li>In philosophy the term normally refers to philosophical questions about ourselves that arise by virtue of our being people, questions that may otherwise have little in common. </li><li>Some philosophers use the term more loosely and include such topics as the nature of self-knowledge, self-deception, rationality, and the will. </li><li>This bibliography covers personal identity in the stricter sense. </li></ol><BR><BR><a id="GeneralOverviews"></a><u><b>General Overviews</b></u> <BR><BR>Penelhum 1967 and Perry 2008 are good but a bit dated. The others are reliable guides to current debates. The Garrett 1998 and Olson 2015 encyclopedia articles survey the field; DeGrazia 2005 approaches the subject from an ethicist s perspective. <BR><ol type="1"><li>DeGrazia, D. Human Identity and Bioethics. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. <BR>Chapter 2 is a lengthy but highly readable survey with lots of examples, focusing mainly on identity over time and its practical importance. Sympathetic towards <a href="#Animalism">Animalism</a>. <BR>&rarr; <a name="137"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1385.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Human Identity and Bioethics</A>", and<BR>&rarr; <a name="14"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6469.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Human Persons: Numerical Identity and Essence</A>"</li><li>Garrett, B.  Personal Identity. In Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Vol. 7. Edited by E. Craig, 305 314. London: Routledge, 1998. A brief but useful introduction and an excellent place to start. The online version (2004, subscription required) is more up to date. <BR>&rarr; <a name="15"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5197.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Personal Identity</A>"</li><li>Olson, E.  Personal Identity. In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by Edward N. Zalta. 2015. Usefully distinguishes seven separate problems of personal identity, then focuses on identity over time, with particular attention to different versions of the question. <BR>&rarr; <a name="16"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23095.htm">Olson (Eric) - Personal Identity (Stanford, 2015)</A>"</li><li>Penelhum, T.  Personal Identity. In Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 6. Edited by P. Edwards, 95 107. New York: Macmillan, 1967. A sophisticated discussion of Locke, Hume, and the debates of their day about evidential criteria of personal identity over time. <BR></FONT>&rarr; <a name="135"></a><A HREF = "../../Authors/P/Author_Penelhum (Terence).htm">Terence Penelhum</A> (missing) <FONT COLOR = "800080"></li><li>Perry, J.  The Problem of Personal Identity. In Personal Identity. 2d ed. Edited by J. Perry, 3 30. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008. A lively and accessible introduction to traditional debates on personal identity over time. Originally published in 1975. <BR>&rarr; <a name="138"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_137.htm">Perry (John), Ed. - Personal Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="17"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5227.htm">Perry (John) - The Problem of Personal Identity</A>"</li></ol><BR><BR><a id="Textbooks"></a><u><b>Textbooks</b></u><BR><BR>Shoemaker and Swinburne 1984 is a classic. Perry 1978 covers the same themes in a witty and entertaining way. Noonan 2003 is a systematic treatise in the traditional style and has near-definitive status. Shoemaker 2009 is a good guide to the intersection of metaphysics and ethics. Garrett 1998, though not strictly a textbook, is accessible enough to be used as one. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Garrett, B. Personal Identity and Self-Consciousness. London: Routledge, 1998. A partisan but highly readable discussion of identity over time, what matters practically, and first-person reference. <BR>&rarr; <a name="139"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_97.htm">Garrett (Brian) - Personal Identity and Self-consciousness</A>"</li><li>Noonan, H. Personal Identity. 2d ed. London and New York: Routledge, 2003. A comprehensive and masterly work, with important original contributions. Most undergraduates will find it hard going, but for the adept it is indispensable. The second edition (the first appeared in 1989) includes a chapter on <a href="#Animalism">Animalism</a>. <BR>&rarr; <a name="140"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_40.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Personal Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="18"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3973.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Persons, Animals and Human Beings</A>"</li><li>Perry, J. A Dialogue on Personal Identity and Immortality. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1978. An ideal source for beginners, covering all the main views about our identity over time. <BR>&rarr; <a name="141"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_651.htm">Perry (John) - A Dialogue on Personal Identity and Immortality</A>"</li><li>Shoemaker, D. Personal Identity and Ethics. Peterborough. Canada: Broadview, 2009. A good textbook, accessible to undergraduates. Short on metaphysics, but very useful on what matters in identity and on narrative conceptions of personal identity. <BR>&rarr; <a name="142"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3382.htm">Shoemaker (David) - Personal Identity and Ethics: A Brief Introduction</A>"</li><li>Shoemaker, S., and R. Swinburne. Personal Identity. Oxford: Blackwell, 1984. Shoemaker advocates a psychological-continuity view; Swinburne, anticriterialism and substance dualism. The book is accessible yet sophisticated, and readers of all levels of expertise will learn from it. <BR>&rarr; <a name="143"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_150.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) & Swinburne (Richard) - Personal Identity</A>"</li></ol><BR><BR><a id="Bibliographies"></a><u><b>Bibliographies</b></u><BR><BR>PhilPapers is the best place to look for recent items; Kolak and Martin 1991 is a valuable source of material up to about 1990. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Kolak, D., and R. Martin, eds. Self and Identity. New York: Macmillan, 1991. This collection includes an enormous bibliography, sadly now rather out of date. It construes personal identity broadly. <BR>&rarr; <a name="144"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_636.htm">Kolak (Daniel) & Martin (Raymond), Eds. - Self and Identity: Contemporary Philosophical Issues</A>"</li><li> Personal Identity. In PhilPapers. Edited by D. Bourget and D. Chalmers. Not strictly a bibliography but a compendium of online sources. Coverage is patchy and some information is inaccurate, but very useful nonetheless. Items of all ages are constantly being added. <BR>&rarr; See <a name="W5955W"></a><A HREF = "https://philpapers.org/browse/theories-of-personal-identity" TARGET = "_top">Link</A></li></ol><BR><BR><a id="Anthologies"></a><u><b>Anthologies</b></u><BR><BR>Martin and Barresi 2002 is the most up-to-date collection of previously published work by more than one author. Perry 2008 is the most popular anthology, especially useful for its historical sources. Perry 2002 is a valuable collection of his own papers. Of the collections of new work, Rorty 1976 is indispensable, with important contributions by all the big names of its day. Dancy 1997 is also first rate, though devoted only partly to personal identity. Paul, et al. 2005; Petrus 2003; and Zimmerman and Gendler 2004 are useful collections of contemporary work. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Blatti, S., and P. Snowdon, eds. Animalism: New Essays on Persons, Animals, and Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. An important collection, with contributions from all the big names. <BR>&rarr; <a name="145"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6482.htm">Blatti (Stephan) & Snowdon (Paul), Eds - Animalism: New Essays on Persons, Animals, and Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; See <a href="#Animalism">Animalism</a></li><li>Dancy, J., ed. Reading Parfit. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997. <BR>Contains papers on personal identity by Shoemaker, Johnston, Blackburn, Thomson, and McDowell, all of which are worthwhile. Not only of interest to Parfit fans. <BR>&rarr; <a name="146"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_81.htm">Dancy (Jonathan), Ed. - Reading Parfit</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="19"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1326.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Parfit on Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="20"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_558.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Human Concerns without Superlative Selves</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="21"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1327.htm">Blackburn (Simon) - Has Kant Refuted Parfit?</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="22"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1328.htm">Thomson (Judith Jarvis) - People and Their Bodies</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="23"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1329.htm">McDowell (John) - Reductionism and the First Person</A>"</li><li>Gasser, G. And M. Stefan, eds. Personal Identity: Simple or Complex? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. A good collection on the mysterious topic of anticriterialism. <BR>&rarr; <a name="147"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6373.htm">Gasser (Georg) & Stefan (Matthias), Eds. - Personal Identity: Complex or Simple?</A>"</li><li>Martin, R., and M. Barresi, eds. Personal Identity. Blackwell Readings in Philosophy 11. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002. The best  greatest-hits collection on the market, with a good balance of both classic and recent articles across all the main areas of the subject. <BR>&rarr; <a name="148"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_121.htm">Martin (Raymond) & Barresi (John), Eds. - Personal Identity</A>" </li><li>Paul, E. F., F. D. Miller Jr., and J. Paul, eds. Personal Identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. A useful collection emphasizing ethical aspects of personal identity. <BR>&rarr; <a name="149"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1415.htm">Paul (Ellen), Miller (Fred) & Paul (Jeffrey), Eds. - Personal Identity</A>" </li><li>Perry, J. Identity, Personal Identity, and the Self. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2002. Contains Perry s well-known papers on personal identity and a few new ones, all written in his inimitable fine style. <BR>&rarr; <a name="150"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1346.htm">Perry (John) - Identity, Personal Identity and the Self</A>" </li><li>Perry, J., ed. Personal Identity. 2d ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008. An excellent, inexpensive collection of the early-modern sources most influential in current debates, along with some important mid-20th-century papers. It is little altered from the first edition of 1975. <BR>&rarr; <a name="151"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_137.htm">Perry (John), Ed. - Personal Identity</A>" </li><li>Petrus, K., ed. On Human Persons. Frankfurt and London: Ontos Verlag, 2003. Contemporary articles on several themes, most notably <a href="#Animalism">Animalism</a> and its critics, with a number of contributions (mostly in English) by German-speaking philosophers. <BR>&rarr; <a name="152"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1442.htm">Petrus (Klaus), Ed. - On Human Persons</A>" </li><li>Rorty, A., ed. The Identities of Persons. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. An important collection of contemporary articles of its time, including a famous exchange between Lewis and Parfit as well as articles by Dennett, Perry, Shoemaker, Williams, and other stars. <BR>&rarr; <a name="153"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_46.htm">Rorty (Amelie), Ed. - The Identities of Persons</A>" <BR>&rarr; <a name="24"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_113.htm">Lewis (David) - Survival and Identity</A>" <BR>&rarr; <a name="25"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_542.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Lewis, Perry, and What Matters</A>" <BR>&rarr; <a name="26"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_545.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - Conditions of Personhood</A>" <BR>&rarr; <a name="27"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_541.htm">Perry (John) - The Importance of Being Identical</A>" <BR>&rarr; <a name="28"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_543.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Embodiment and Behavior</A>" <BR>&rarr; <a name="29"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_546.htm">Williams (Bernard) - Persons, Character and Morality</A>" </li><li>Zimmerman, D., and T. Gendler, eds. Special Issue: Personal Identity. Monist 87.4 (2004). This journal issue is another good contemporary collection, including several papers on realism and antirealism in personal identity and an exchange between Shoemaker and Wiggins. <BR>&rarr; <a name="154"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6596.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) & Gendler (Tamar Szabo), Eds. - Monist Special Issue: Personal Identity</A>" <BR>&rarr; <a name="30"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5057.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Brown-Brownson Revisited</A>" <BR>&rarr; <a name="31"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5069.htm">Wiggins (David) - Reply To Shoemaker</A>" <BR>&rarr; <a name="32"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5058.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Reply To Wiggins</A>" <BR>&rarr; <a name="33"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5070.htm">Wiggins (David) - Reply To Shoemaker's Reply</A>" </li></ol><BR><BR><a id="HistoricalSources"></a><u><b>Historical Sources</b></u><BR><BR>Most of the big names of Western philosophy had something to say about some aspect of personal identity. This list is restricted to the items that most influence current debates, many of which are conveniently collected in Perry s anthology Personal Identity (Perry 2008, cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>). Throughout much of history, debates focused on whether we are material or immaterial, mortal or immortal, Plato 1997 being the most famous example. Personal identity over time in general became a major theme only with Locke 1975; Butler 2008 and Reid 1941 criticize Locke s view. Hume 1978 and Kant 1997, in different ways, are skeptical about the metaphysics of personal identity. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Butler, J. The Analogy of Religion. Charleston, SC: BiblioLife, 2008. Argues that memory cannot constitute personal identity because it presupposes identity, and contrasts the  strict philosophical identity of people with the  loose and popular identity of other things. Original work 1736. Also in Perry 2008 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>). <BR>&rarr; <a name="34"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_535.htm">Butler (Joseph) - Of Personal Identity</A>"</li><li>Hume, D. A Treatise of Human Nature. 2d ed. Edited by L. A. Selby-Bigge and P. H. Nidditch. Oxford: Clarendon, 1978. Book 1, Part 4, section 2, pp. 199 210 argues that nothing can survive any change whatever, and section 6, pp. 251 263 makes the famous claim that each of us is  nothing but a bundle of perceptions. The appendix has a section on personal identity at pp. 633 636. A difficult but enormously influential source. Original work 1739. Partly reprinted in Perry 2008 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>). <BR>&rarr; <a name="155"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_613.htm">Hume (David), Mossner (Ernest) - A Treatise of Human Nature</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="35"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_08/PaperSummary_8641.htm">Hume (David) - Treatise I.IV: Of the Sceptical and Other Systems of Philosophy</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="36"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4147.htm">Hume (David) - Our Idea Of Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="37"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PaperSummary_4148.htm">Hume (David) - Treatise I.IV.VI: Of Personal Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="38"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4149.htm">Hume (David) - Second Thoughts (on Personal Identity)</A>"</li><li>Kant, I. Critique of Pure Reason. Edited and translated by P. Guyer and A. Wood. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997. The Paralogisms (A341 405 and B436 432) argue that we cannot know, either a priori or on the basis of introspection, that we are substances, that we are mereologically simple, or that we persist through time. Very difficult. Original work 1781 and 1787. <BR>&rarr; <a name="156"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_578.htm">Kant (Immanuel), Kemp Smith (Norman) - Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason</A>"</li><li>Locke, J. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Edited by P. Nidditch. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975. Book 2, chapter 28,  Of Identity and Diversity (added in the second edition), is the point of departure for modern discussions of personal identity, and the source of psychological-continuity accounts. The text is <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_2">notoriously baffling</A></U><SUB>2</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_2"></A>, and scholars debate what view Locke meant to endorse. Original work 1694. Partly reprinted in Perry 2008 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>). <BR>&rarr; <a name="157"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_620.htm">Locke (John), Nidditch (Peter) - An Essay Concerning Human Understanding</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="39"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5555.htm">Locke (John) - Of Identity and Diversity</A>"</li><li>Plato. Phaedo. Translated by G. M. A. Grube. In Complete Works. Edited by J. Cooper. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1997. Socrates discussion of death on the night of his execution. The arguments for the immortality of the soul begin at around 70a. <BR>&rarr; <a name="158"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_868.htm">Plato, Cooper (John M.), Ed. - Plato - The Complete Works</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="159"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_881.htm">Plato, Gallop (David) - Phaedo</A>"</li><li>Reid, T.  Of Memory. In Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man. Edited by A. D. Woozley. London: Macmillan, 1941. Chapter 6 contains the  brave officer objection to memory theories; chapter 4 is also worthwhile. Numerous publishers have reprinted the Woozley edition; others are also acceptable. Original work 1785. Partly reprinted in Perry 2008 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>).<BR>&rarr; <a name="160"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6598.htm">Reid (Thomas), Woozley (A.D.), Ed. - Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="40"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_00/PaperSummary_630.htm">Reid (Thomas) - Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (I & II)</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="41"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_00/PaperSummary_536.htm">Reid (Thomas) - Of Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="42"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_00/PaperSummary_537.htm">Reid (Thomas) - Of Mr. Locke's Account of Our Personal Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="43"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6051.htm">Reid (Thomas) - Of the Nature and Origin of Our Notion of Personal Identity</A>"<BR> </li></ol><BR><BR><a id="EvidenceAndMeaning"></a><u><b>Evidence and Meaning</b></u><BR><BR>From the 1950s to the early 1970s, discussions of personal identity were dominated by questions about the evidence bearing on questions of identity over time. Different sources of evidence or  criteria  first-person memory and physical continuity, for example  can support opposing verdicts about who is who. There were debates about which sources are more fundamental, and whether some depend epistemically on others. Most of these debates assumed a verificationist position that the meaning of a claim is determined by what evidence would support or undermine it. Shoemaker 1963 and Penelhum 1970 are sophisticated examples of this approach. Grice 1941 argues in this style for a Lockean view and Quinton 1962 a Humean one; Williams 1956 1957 argues for a bodily criterion. Shoemaker 1970 concerns the importance of memory to a number of questions about personal identity. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Grice, H. P.  Personal Identity. Mind 50 (1941): 330 350. Difficult but influential paper that is hard to classify. Attempts to give a logical analysis of statements about personal identity over time. Reprinted in Perry 2008 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>). <BR>&rarr; <a name="44"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_228.htm">Grice (H. Paul) - Personal Identity</A>"</li><li>Penelhum, T. Survival and Disembodied Existence. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970. Asks whether survival after death in a disembodied state is coherent, focusing largely, though not entirely, on whether there could be evidence to support the claim that such a thing had occurred. <BR>&rarr; <a name="161"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_133.htm">Penelhum (Terence) - Survival and Disembodied Existence</A>"</li><li>Quinton, A.  The Soul. Journal of Philosophy 59 (1962): 393 403. Argues that each of us is a bundle of mental states, based mainly on epistemic objections to substance dualism. Reprinted in Perry 2008 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>). <BR>&rarr; <a name="45"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_534.htm">Quinton (Anthony) - The Soul</A>"</li><li>Shoemaker, S. Self-Knowledge and Self-Identity. Contemporary Philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1963. A rich discussion of the interaction between brute-physical and psychological evidence bearing on claims of personal identity, among other topics. <BR>&rarr; <a name="162"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_577.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Self-Knowledge and Self-Identity</A>"</li><li>Shoemaker, S.  Persons and Their Pasts. American Philosophical Quarterly 7.4 (1970): 269 285. Discusses the importance of memory in giving us knowledge of our past existence, actions, and experiences, and connections between memory and our identity through time. Reprinted in his Identity, Cause, and Mind, expanded edition (Oxford: Clarendon, 2003), and in Perry 2008 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>). <BR>&rarr; <a name="46"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2409.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Persons and Their Pasts</A>"</li><li>Williams, B.  Personal Identity and Individuation. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 57 (1956 1957): 229 252. Argues that bodily identity is necessary for personal identity, on the grounds that without it there could be no conclusive evidence that it was the same person. Source of the famous  Guy Fawkes example. Reprinted in his Problems of the Self (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1973), pp. 1 18. <BR>&rarr; <a name="47"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2330.htm">Williams (Bernard) - Personal Identity and Individuation</A>"</li></ol><BR><BR><a id="Psychological-ContinuityAccounts"></a><u><b>Psychological-Continuity Accounts</b></u><BR><BR>The view that we persist by virtue of some sort of psychological continuity has dominated debates on personal identity since Locke. The unifying idea is that a being existing at another time is you if and only if its mental states or capacities then depend causally in some way on your current states or capacities, or vice versa. There is debate over the details: for instance about whether our mental states have to be  continuously physically realized for us to persist, as Johnston 1987, Shoemaker 1997, and Unger 1990 argue, or whether other sorts of causal dependence suffice, as Shoemaker 1984 claims. Van Inwagen 1997 attacks the view advocated in Shoemaker 1984, while Olson 1997 objects to psychologicalcontinuity views of all sorts. Noonan 1998 and Shoemaker 2008 defend psychological-continuity views against these objections. Williams 1970 is a classic critical discussion influencing all later authors. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Johnston, M.  Human Beings. Journal of Philosophy 84 (1987): 59 83. Criticizes the  method of cases commonly used in arguing about personal identity and advocates a physically qualified psychological-continuity view. Reprinted in Metaphysics: An Anthology, edited by J. Kim and E. Sosa (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999), pp. 393 407. <BR>&rarr; <a name="48"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_262.htm">Johnston (Mark) - Human Beings</A>"</li><li>Noonan, H.  Animalism versus Lockeanism: A Current Controversy. Philosophical Quarterly 48.198 (1998): 302 318. The <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_3">first of a series of papers</A></U><SUB>3</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_3"></A> defending the psychological-continuity view against  <a href="#Animalism">Animalist</a> objections by offering an unorthodox account of first-person reference. <BR>&rarr; <a name="49"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4758.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Animalism Versus Lockeanism: A Current Controversy</A>"</li><li>Olson, E. The Human Animal: Personal Identity without Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Objects that any account of our identity over time with a psychological component is incompatible with our being animals, raising metaphysical and epistemic problems. <BR>&rarr; <a name="163"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_130.htm">Olson (Eric) - The Human Animal - Personal Identity Without Psychology</A>"</li><li>Shoemaker, S.  Personal Identity: A Materialist s Account. In Personal Identity. Edited by S. Shoemaker and S. Swinburne, 89 97. Oxford: Blackwell, 1984. Classic defense of a  <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_4">generous</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_4"></A> psychological-continuity account. The characterization of psychological continuity is particularly good. An indispensable source. <BR>&rarr; <a name="50"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1791.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Personal Identity: a Materialist Account</A>"</li><li>Shoemaker, S.  Self and Substance. In Special Issue: Mind, Causation, and World. Edited by J. Tomberlin. Philosophical Perspectives 11: (1997): 283 304. An important discussion that could have been included under a number of categories. Shoemaker <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_5">retracts his earlier generous account</A></U><SUB>5</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_5"></A>. Reprinted in Shoemaker s Identity, Cause, and Mind, expanded edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). <BR>&rarr; <a name="51"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2417.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Self and Substance</A>"</li><li>Shoemaker, S.  Persons, Animals, and Identity. In <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_6">Special Issue: Personal Identity</A></U><SUB>6</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_6"></A>. Synthese 162.3 (2008): 313 324. One of a series of papers arguing that a functionalist theory of mind entails a psychological-continuity account of personal identity and that biological organisms cannot have mental properties. <BR>&rarr; <a name="52"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_20/Abstract_20427.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Persons, Animals, and Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_7">Note</A></U><SUB>7</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_7"></A></li><li>Unger, P. Identity, Consciousness, and Value. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Ingenious and detailed discussion of a wide range of psychologically based accounts. Argues for a physically qualified view. <BR>&rarr; <a name="164"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_156.htm">Unger (Peter) - Identity, Consciousness and Value</A>"</li><li>van Inwagen, P.  Materialism and the Psychological-Continuity Account of Personal Identity. In Special Issue: Mind, Causation, and World. Edited by J. Tomberlin. Philosophical Perspectives 11 (1997): 305 319. Argues that a Shoemaker-style  generous psychological-continuity view is incompatible with our being material things. Reprinted in his Ontology, Identity, and Modality (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press 2001), pp. 144 161. <BR>&rarr; <a name="53"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3660.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Materialism and the Psychological-continuity Account of Personal Identity</A>"</li><li>Williams, B.  The Self and the Future. Philosophical Review 79.2 (1970): 161 180. Brilliantly argues that the very  brain-state transfer story that appears to support a psychological-continuity view turns out, when described differently, to undermine it. Reprinted in his Problems of the Self (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1973), pp. 46 63, and in Perry 2008 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>). <BR>&rarr; <a name="54"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_423.htm">Williams (Bernard) - The Self and the Future</A>"</li></ol><BR><BR><a id="ExtrinsicnessAndBest-CandidateTheories"></a><u><b>Extrinsicness and Best-Candidate Theories</b></u><BR><BR>It seems that there could be two beings at some future time, each of which relates to you in a way that would suffice for him or her to be you, were it not for the existence of the other. What would happen to you then? Many respond that neither being would be you, precisely because there are two of them. Others deny that identity can be determined by such extrinsic factors. Parfit uses discontent with the first response to argue for the practical unimportance of identity, but that is another topic (see <a href="#WhatMattersInIdentity">What Matters in Identity</a>). Heller 1987, Lewis 1976, Noonan 2003, and Perry 1972 argue against extrinsicness, based on the view that we are composed of temporal parts. Nozick 1981 argues in support of it, without giving any metaphysical basis. Thomson 1987 uses fission cases to cast doubt on psychological-continuity accounts. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Heller, M.  The Best Candidate Approach to Diachronic Identity. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 65.4 (1987): 434 451. A good expression of the thought that whether a being existing at another time is identical to one existing now should not depend on whether there is competition. <BR>&rarr; <a name="55"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_09/Abstract_9492.htm">Heller (Mark) - The best candidate approach to diachronic identity</A>"</li><li>Lewis, D.  Survival and Identity. In The Identities of Persons. Edited by A. Rorty, 17 40. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. Ingenious and influential defense of the claim that one can survive division as both resulting beings because in that case there were two of you all along. Reprinted with postscripts in his Philosophical Papers, vol. 1 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), pp. 55 77, and in Martin and Barresi 2002 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>), pp. 144 167. <BR>&rarr; <a name="56"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_113.htm">Lewis (David) - Survival and Identity</A>"</li><li>Noonan, H. Personal Identity. 2d ed. London and New York: Routledge, 2003. Chapter 7,  The Reduplication Problem, pp. 127 143, is clear and insightful discussion of the extrinsicness debate. (This chapter is unchanged from the first edition of 1989.) <BR>&rarr; <a name="165"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_40.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Personal Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="57"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3969.htm">Noonan (Harold) - The Reduplication Problem</A>"</li><li>Nozick, R.  Personal Identity through Time. In Philosophical Explanations. By R. Nozick, 29 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981. The most famous defense of a best-candidate or closest-continuer theory. Reprinted in Martin and Barresi 2002 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>), pp. 92 114. <BR>&rarr; <a name="166"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_9.htm">Nozick (Robert) - Philosophical Explanations</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="58"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_552.htm">Nozick (Robert) - Personal Identity Through Time</A>"</li><li>Perry, J.  Can the Self Divide? Journal of Philosophy 69 (1972): 463 488. An important discussion of fission cases, advocating an interesting variant on the usual temporal-parts account. Reprinted in Perry 2002 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>), pp. 34 61. <BR>&rarr; <a name="59"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_328.htm">Perry (John) - Can the Self Divide?</A>"</li><li>Thomson. J. J.  Ruminations on an Account of Personal Identity. In On Being and Saying: Essays for Richard Cartwright. Edited by J. J. Thomson, 215 240. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987. A good critical discussion of psychological-continuity accounts and their implications in fission cases. <BR>&rarr; <a name="60"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_06/PaperSummary_6042.htm">Thomson (Judith Jarvis) - Ruminations On an Account of Personal Identity</A>"</li></ol><BR><BR><a id="BodilyCriterion"></a><u><b>The Bodily Criterion</b></u><BR><BR>The bodily criterion of personal identity is the view that we persist by virtue of the persistence of our bodies: personal identity is bodily identity. An allied view is that we are our bodies: a human person and her body are one and the same. Though the bodily criterion has few advocates, it is historically an important alternative to psychological-continuity views. It has now largely been superseded by <a href="#Animalism">Animalism</a>. Thomson 1997, Williams 1956 1957, and Williams 1970 (cited under Psychological-Continuity Accounts) argue in favor of a bodily criterion. Wiggins 1976 offers subtle criticisms, while van Inwagen 1980 argues that the entire debate is founded on linguistic muddle. Standard objections to the bodily criterion (e.g., on the basis of brain-transplant stories) can be found in almost any general discussion of personal identity over time, and are not included here. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Thomson, J. J.  People and Their Bodies. In Reading Parfit. Edited by J. Dancy, 202 209. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997. A rare argument for the claim that we are our bodies, in Thomson s characteristic no-nonsense style. <BR>&rarr; <a name="61"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1328.htm">Thomson (Judith Jarvis) - People and Their Bodies</A>"</li><li>van Inwagen, P.  Philosophers and the Words  Human Body.  In Time and Cause: Essays Presented to Richard Taylor. Edited by P. van Inwagen, 283 299. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel, 1980. Argues that philosophical talk of people s bodies is meaningless, or at least that philosophers who speak of people s bodies as such need to explain what they mean by the term. <BR>&rarr; <a name="62"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_04/PaperSummary_4924.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Philosophers and the Words 'Human Body'</A>"</li><li>Wiggins, D.  Locke, Butler and the Stream of Consciousness: And Men as a Natural Kind. In The Identities of Persons. Edited by A. Rorty, 139 149. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. One of the more interesting assaults on the bodily criterion, taking care to distinguish it from <a href="#Animalism">Animalism</a>. Fairly difficult. <BR>&rarr; <a name="63"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_544.htm">Wiggins (David) - Locke, Butler and the Stream of Consciousness: And Men as Natural Kind</A>"</li><li>Williams, B.  Personal Identity and Individuation. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 57 (1956 1957): 229 252. Argues that bodily identity is necessary for personal identity, on the grounds that without it there could be no conclusive evidence that it was the same person. <BR>&rarr; <a name="64"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2330.htm">Williams (Bernard) - Personal Identity and Individuation</A>"</li><li>Williams, B.  Are Persons Bodies? In Problems of the Self. By B. Williams, 64 81. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1973. First published in 1970. Though the article is mainly about whether we are material things, it also defends the bodily criterion against objections. <BR>&rarr; <a name="65"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2438.htm">Williams (Bernard) - Are Persons Bodies?</A>"</li></ol><BR><BR><a id="Anticriterialism"></a><u><b>Anticriterialism</b></u><BR><BR>While some argue about whether the conditions of our persistence through time are psychological or brute physical, others doubt whether there are any such conditions to be known. Personal identity, they say, is  simple and unanalyzable. A related question is whether our identity over time can be indeterminate (though it is not very clear <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1261.htm">what the relation is</A><SUP>8</SUP>). Chisholm 1976, Lowe 1998, Merricks 1998, and Swinburne 1984 all argue in support of some  simple view or other; Unger 1990 and Zimmerman 1998 argue against. Gasser and Stefan 2012 is a good collection of contemporary papers on this topic. Yet another vaguely related topic that has to be mentioned somewhere is  <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_9">reductionism</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_9"></A>, the view that our identity over time consists in something that can be described <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_10">without mentioning people</A></U><SUB>10</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_10"></A>. Parfit 1984 endorses it; Shoemaker 1985 finds it obscure. The entire constellation of issues is poorly understood. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Chisholm, R. Person and Object: A Metaphysical Study. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1976. Chapter 3, especially pp. 108 113, argues that our persistence does not consist in any conditions that we could use as evidence for it; criteria of personal identity over time can only be epistemic. Partly reprinted in Material Constitution, edited by M. Rea (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield 1997), pp. 209 235. <BR>&rarr; <a name="167"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_75.htm">Chisholm (Roderick) - Person and Object</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="66"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3397.htm">Chisholm (Roderick) - Identity Through Time</A>"</li><li>Gasser, G. And M. Stefan, eds. Personal Identity: Simple or Complex? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Contains useful papers by Baker, Lowe, Olson, Shoemaker, Swinburne, and others. <BR>&rarr; <a name="168"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6373.htm">Gasser (Georg) & Stefan (Matthias), Eds. - Personal Identity: Complex or Simple?</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="67"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21290.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Personal Identity: A Not-So-Simple Simple View</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="68"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21307.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - The Probable Simplicity Of Personal Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; &rarr; <a name="69"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21308.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Reply To E. J. Lowe</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="70"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21302.htm">Olson (Eric) - In Search of the Simple View</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="71"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_21/PaperSummary_21306.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Against Simplicity</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="72"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_21/PaperSummary_21305.htm">Swinburne (Richard) - How To Determine Which Is The True Theory Of Personal Identity</A>"</li><li>Lowe, E. J.  Persistence and Substance. In The Possibility of Metaphysics: Substance, Identity, and Time. Edited by E. J. Lowe, 106 136. Oxford: Clarendon, 1998. Argues that there must be things whose persistence is primitive and does not consist in facts about anything else. <BR>&rarr; <a name="73"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4594.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Persistence and Substance</A>"</li><li>Merricks, T.  There Are No Criteria of Identity Over Time. Nos 32 (1998): 106 124. Important argument for the claim that there is no nontrivial set of necessary and sufficient conditions for anything, including a person, to persist. <BR>&rarr; <a name="74"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3448.htm">Merricks (Trenton) - There Are No Criteria For Identity Over Time</A>"</li><li>Parfit, D. Reasons and Persons. Oxford: Clarendon, 1984. Chapters 10 and 11 are the most influential source of  reductionism. <BR>&rarr; <a name="169"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_41.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Reasons and Persons</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="75"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3572.htm">Parfit (Derek) - What We Believe Ourselves To Be</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="76"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3573.htm">Parfit (Derek) - How We Are Not What We Believe</A>"</li><li>Shoemaker, S.  Critical Notice of D. Parfit, Reasons and Persons. Mind 94 (1985): 443 453. Asks what Parfitian reductionism could amount to. Reprinted in slightly abridged form in Dancy 1997 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>). <BR>&rarr; <a name="77"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1326.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Parfit on Identity</A>"</li><li>Swinburne, R.  Personal Identity: the Dualist Theory. In Personal Identity. Edited by S. Shoemaker and R. Swinburne, 1 66. Oxford: Blackwell, 1984. Argues against  empiricist theories according to which our persistence consists in the psychological or physical continuity we use as evidence for it, and defends his  simple view against objections. <BR>&rarr; <a name="78"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1792.htm">Swinburne (Richard) - Personal Identity: The Dualist Theory</A>"</li><li>Unger, P. Identity, Consciousness, and Value. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Ch. 6 argues that personal identity over time can be indeterminate. <BR>&rarr; <a name="170"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_156.htm">Unger (Peter) - Identity, Consciousness and Value</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="79"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3621.htm">Unger (Peter) - Physically Based Subjects and Their Experiences: Against the Six Metaphysical Doctrines</A>"</li><li>Zimmerman, D.  Criteria of Identity and the  Identity Mystics.  Erkenntnis 48 (1998): 281 301. Argues that there have to be nontrivial conditions necessary and sufficient for material things, including ourselves if we are material, to persist. Fairly technical.<BR>&rarr; <a name="80"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6615.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Criteria of Identity and the 'Identity Mystics'</A>"<BR> </li></ol><BR><BR><a id="WhatMattersInIdentity"></a><u><b>What Matters in Identity</b></u><BR><BR>Our continuing or ceasing to exist is one thing; the practical importance of these facts is another. Why do they matter to us? Should they matter? Although Locke and Leibniz discussed this question in the 17th century, it gained huge popularity in the early 1970s when Parfit and others argued that identity over time has no practical importance in itself. What matters, they claimed, is a <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_11">relation</A></U><SUB>11</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_11"></A> normally correlated with identity, but separable from it. Parfit 1970 launched the modern debate; Parfit 1984 gives more detail. Korsgaard 1989, Martin 1998, Velleman 1996, and Whiting 1986 defend Parfitian views. Lewis 1976, Perry 1976, Sosa 1990, and Unger 1990 argue in different ways for the importance of identity. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Korsgaard, C.  Personal Identity and the Unity of Agency: A Kantian Response to Parfit. Philosophy and Public Affairs 18 (1989): 103 131. Argues that whether an earlier or later action or experience is yours in the practical sense is independent of metaphysical facts about identity through time. The view is closer to Parfit s than the title suggests. Difficult. Reprinted in Kolak and Martin 1991 (cited under Bibliographies), pp. 323 338. <BR>&rarr; <a name="81"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_554.htm">Korsgaard (Christine) - Personal Identity and the Unity of Agency; A Kantian Response to Parfit</A>"</li><li>Lewis, D.  Survival and Identity. In The Identities of Persons. Edited by A. Rorty, 17 40. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. Famous paper arguing that  fission cases fail to show the unimportance of identity if we are composed of temporal parts. <BR>&rarr; <a name="82"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_113.htm">Lewis (David) - Survival and Identity</A>"</li><li>Martin, R. Self-Concern: An Experiential Approach to What Matters in Identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Connects what matters practically to the possibility of rationally anticipating later experiences, and argues that this does not require identity. <BR>&rarr; <a name="171"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_120.htm">Martin (Raymond) - Self-Concern: An Experiential Approach to what Matters in Survival</A>"</li><li>Parfit, D.  Personal Identity. Philosophical Review 80 (1970): 3 27. Enormously influential paper, arguing for the unimportance of identity based on fission cases. Reprinted in Perry 2008 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>). <BR>&rarr; <a name="83"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_325.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Personal Identity</A>"</li><li>Parfit, D. Reasons and Persons. Oxford: Clarendon 1984. <BR>Part 3, especially chapters 12 and 13, develops the account given in Parfit 1970 in more detail and is probably the most important source for this debate. <BR>&rarr; <a name="172"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_41.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Reasons and Persons</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="84"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3574.htm">Parfit (Derek) - Why Our Identity is Not What Matters</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="85"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3575.htm">Parfit (Derek) - What Does Matter</A>"</li><li>Perry, J.  The Importance of Being Identical. In The Identities of Persons. Edited by A. Rorty, 67 90. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. A temporal-parts view importantly different from Lewis s. Reprinted in Perry 2002 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>). <BR>&rarr; <a name="86"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_541.htm">Perry (John) - The Importance of Being Identical</A>"</li><li>Sosa, E.  Surviving Matters. Nos 25.1 (1990): 297-322. A useful critical discussion of arguments for the unimportance of identity. <BR>&rarr; <a name="87"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4445.htm">Sosa (Ernest) - Surviving Matters</A>"</li><li>Unger, P. Identity, Consciousness, and Value. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Chapter 7,  What Matters in Our Survival, usefully distinguishes different senses of mattering. <BR>&rarr; <a name="173"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_156.htm">Unger (Peter) - Identity, Consciousness and Value</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="88"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3622.htm">Unger (Peter) - What Matters In Our Survival: Distinctions, Compromises and Limits</A>"</li><li>Velleman, D.  Self to Self. Philosophical Review 105 (1996): 39 76. Identifies a form of engagement with  future selves that does not require identity, yet cannot hold in fission cases. Rather difficult. Reprinted in his Self to Self (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 170 202. <BR>&rarr; <a name="89"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5184.htm">Velleman (David) - Self To Self</A>"</li><li>Whiting, J.  Friends and Future Selves. Philosophical Review 95 (1986): 547 580. An important and highly readable defense of a Parfitian view. <BR>&rarr; <a name="90"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5172.htm">Whiting (Jennifer E.) - Friends and Future Selves</A>"</li></ol><BR><BR><a id="NarrativeConceptionsOfPersonalIdentity"></a><u><b>Narrative Conceptions of Personal Identity</b></u><BR><BR>Lockean accounts say that we persist by virtue of psychological continuity: relations of causal dependence among our mental states. Parfit argues that these relations are what matter practically, even when they fail to secure our <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_12">persistence</A></U><SUB>12</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_12"></A> (see <a href="#WhatMattersInIdentity">What Matters in Identity</a>). But we also want our lives to have a sort of narrative unity or overall shape. And we want control over that shape, rather than having it fixed by factors not up to us. Whether this is <ol type="i"><li>a normative thesis about value, </li><li>a contingent psychological thesis about human beings, or </li><li>a metaphysical thesis about persistence </li></ol>is not always clear; but this literature captures something missing in the Lockean tradition. MacIntyre 1984, Wollheim 1984, Schechtman 1996, and Schechtman 2001 argue for a narrative conception; Christman 2004, Lamarque 2004, and Strawson 2004 argue against. Glover 1988 is a popular discussion of something like a narrative conception. DeGrazia 2005 attempts to sort out what s going on in these debates. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Christman, J.  Narrative Unity as a Condition of Personhood. Metaphilosophy 35.5 (2004): 695-713. Argues that a being s experiences need not conform to any sort of narrative for it to count as a person. <BR>&rarr; <a name="91"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5155.htm">Christman (John) - Narrative Unity as a Condition of Personhood</A>"</li><li>DeGrazia, D. Human Identity and Bioethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Chapter 3 is a clear-headed introduction to narrative approaches to personal identity. <BR>&rarr; <a name="174"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1385.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Human Identity and Bioethics</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="92"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6470.htm">DeGrazia (David) - Human Persons: Narrative Identity and Self-Creation</A>"</li><li>Glover, J. I: The Philosophy and Psychology of Personal Identity. London: Allen Lane, 1988. Part 2 is an accessible and sympathetic introduction to the topic of  self-creation. Unfortunately now out of print. <BR>&rarr; <a name="175"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_575.htm">Glover (Jonathan) - I: Philosophy and Psychology of Personal Identity</A>"</li><li>Lamarque, P.  On Not Expecting Too Much from Narrative. Mind and Language 19.4 (2004): 393-408. Argues that narratives play a smaller role in human lives than is often claimed. <BR>&rarr; <a name="93"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23083.htm">Lamarque (Peter) - On Not Expecting Too Much from Narrative</A>"</li><li>MacIntyre, A. After Virtue. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981. Chapter 15,  The Virtues, the Unity of a Human Life and the Concept of a Tradition , is one of the primary sources of narrativism. <BR>&rarr; <a name="176"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_439.htm">MacIntyre (Alasdair) - After Virtue</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="94"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_08/PaperSummary_8705.htm">MacIntyre (Alasdair) - The Virtues, the Unity of a Human Life and the Concept of a Tradition</A>"</li><li>Schechtman, M. The Constitution of Selves. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996. Difficult but influential book, arguing that an essential element of personal identity is which of the mental properties one exemplifies make one the person one really is. Part 1 makes some good objections to Lockean approaches. <BR>&rarr; <a name="177"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_656.htm">Schechtman (Marya) - The Constitution of Selves</A>"</li><li>Schechtman, M.  Empathic Access: The Missing Ingredient in Personal Identity. Philosophical Explorations 4.2 (2001): 94 110. Argues that narrative coherence and empathic access can replace traditional psychological continuity to yield a new account of personal identity over time. Reprinted in Martin and Barresi 2002 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>), pp. 238 259. <BR>&rarr; <a name="95"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_557.htm">Schechtman (Marya) - Empathic Access: The Missing Ingredient in Personal Identity</A>"</li><li>Strawson, G.  Against Narrativity. Ratio 17 (2004): 428 452. An iconoclastic paper, arguing that the narrative structure of one s life is neither an important feature of how we in fact experience our lives, nor an essential feature of a good life. Reprinted in his The Self? (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005), pp. 63 86. <BR>&rarr; <a name="96"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5150.htm">Strawson (Galen) - Against Narrativity</A>"</li><li>Wollheim, R. The Thread of Life. William James Lectures 1982. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Argues that we must understand what it is to be a person in terms of the process of leading one s life. And a life cannot be understood as built up out of individual actions and mental states; rather, actions and mental states are abstractions from the life in which they occur. Rather difficult. <BR>&rarr; <a name="178"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_270.htm">Wollheim (Richard) - The Thread of Life</A>"</li></ol><BR><BR><a id="PersonalOntology"></a><u><b>Personal Ontology</b></u><BR><BR>Personal ontology refers to the basic metaphysical nature of human people: whether we are material or immaterial, momentary or persisting, abstract or concrete, and so on. This has been an important recent area of research. Olson 2007 and van Inwagen 2002 survey a range of possible answers to the question, while Baker 2000 and Hudson 2001 are book-length defenses of particular answers. Chisholm 1989, Lowe 2001, Unger 1979, and Zimmerman 2003 argue for very different but <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_13">equally surprising views</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_13"></A>. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Baker, L. R. Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000. A detailed statement and defense of the view that we are  constituted by human organisms numerically different from us. <BR>&rarr; <a name="179"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_66.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View</A>"</li><li>Chisholm, R.  Is There a Mind-Body Problem? In On Metaphysics. By R. Chisholm, 119 128. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989. Notorious argument for  Lilliputian materialism, the view that each of us is a tiny particle within the brain. First published 1979; partly reprinted in Metaphysics: The Big Questions, 2d ed., edited by P. van Inwagen and D. Zimmerman (Malden, MA: Blackwell 2008), pp. 173 185. <BR>&rarr; <a name="97"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1790.htm">Chisholm (Roderick) - Which Physical Thing Am I? An Excerpt from 'Is There a Mind-Body Problem?'</A>"</li><li>Hudson, H. A Materialist Metaphysics of the Human Person. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001. A sophisticated and very clear argument for the view that each of us is a <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_14">temporal part of a brain</A></U><SUB>14</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_14"></A>, based on general principles about the nature of vagueness. <BR>&rarr; <a name="180"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_109.htm">Hudson (Hud) - A Materialist Metaphysics of the Human Person</A>"</li><li>Lowe, E. J.  Identity, Composition, and the Simplicity of the Self. In Soul, Body and Survival. Edited by K. Corcoran, 139 158. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001. An intricate argument for the claim that we are <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_15">human-being-sized mereological atoms</A></U><SUB>15</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_15"></A>. <BR>&rarr; <a name="98"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6204.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Identity, Composition, and the Simplicity of the Self</A>"</li><li>Olson, E. What Are We? A Study in Personal Ontology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. An explanation of what the problem of personal ontology amounts to, followed by a critical discussion of what the author takes to be the main solutions. <BR>&rarr; <a name="181"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2710.htm">Olson (Eric) - What are We?</A>"</li><li>Unger, P.  I Do Not Exist. In Perception and Identity. Edited by G. F. MacDonald, 235 251. London: Macmillan, 1979. Argues from <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1172.htm">sorites-type</A><SUP>16</SUP> problems to the conclusion that there are no human people. Reprinted in Material Constitution, edited by M. Rea (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997), pp. 175 190. <BR>&rarr; <a name="99"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1375.htm">Unger (Peter) - I Do Not Exist</A>"</li><li>van Inwagen, P.  What Do We Refer to When We Say  I ? In The Blackwell Guide to Metaphysics. Edited by R. Gale, 175 189. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002. A very clear discussion of the question of personal ontology and a range of possible views. <BR>&rarr; <a name="100"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5383.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - What Do We Refer to When We Say 'I'?</A>"</li><li>Zimmerman, D.  Material People. In The Oxford Handbook of Metaphysics. Edited by D. Zimmerman, 491 526. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. A Chisholm-style argument against our being material things of any kind, based on the metaphysics of material objects in general. <BR>&rarr; <a name="101"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4723.htm">Zimmerman (Dean) - Material People</A>"</li></ol><BR> <BR><a id="Animalism"></a><u><b>Animalism</b></u><BR><BR>Animalism is the view that human people are biological organisms. It is generally taken to imply that our identity over time consists in some brute physical condition to do with biology, contrary to all psychological-continuity views. Ayers 1990, Olson 2003, and Snowdon 2014 argue in support of animalism, while van Inwagen 1990 defends it against objections. Johnston 2007 and Unger 2000 object to its implications about our identity over time; Hudson 2007 and Olson 2007 attack it on other metaphysical grounds. Toner 2011 considers what animalism would mean on an Aristotelian or Thomistic account of the nature of animals. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Ayers, M. Locke. Vol. 2, Ontology. London: Routledge, 1990. Chapter 19 is a fascinating discussion of animal identity; chapter 25 argues for animalism and against Lockean views. <BR>&rarr; <a name="182"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_29.htm">Ayers (Michael R.) - Locke (Vol 2 - Ontology)</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="102"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3955.htm">Ayers (Michael R.) - Locke on Living Things</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="103"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3961.htm">Ayers (Michael R.) - Neo-Lockean and Anti-Lockean Theories of Personal Identity in Analytic Philosophy</A>"</li><li>Hudson, H.  I Am Not an Animal! In Persons: Human and Divine. Edited by P. van Inwagen and D. Zimmerman, 216 236. Oxford: Clarendon, 2007. A very clear critical discussion. Hudson has a good nose for metaphysical problems and is one of animalism s ablest critics. <BR>&rarr; <a name="104"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_14/Abstract_14535.htm">Hudson (Hud) - I am Not an Animal!</A>"</li><li>Johnston, M.   Human Beings Revisited: My Body Is Not an Animal. In Oxford Studies in Metaphysics. Vol. 3. Edited by D. Zimmerman, 33-74. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Critical discussion of animalism with an important new objection. <BR>&rarr; <a name="105"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_18/Abstract_18375.htm">Johnston (Mark) - 'Human Beings' Revisited: My Body is Not an Animal</A>"</li><li>Olson, E.  An Argument for Animalism. In Personal Identity. Edited by R. Martin and M. Barresi, 318 334. Blackwell Readings in Philosophy 11. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003. Clear statement of the  <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_872.htm">too-many-thinkers</A><SUP>17</SUP> argument: because human animals have all the psychological and behavioral features that we have, they are <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_734.htm">what we are</A><SUP>18</SUP>. Reprinted in Metaphysics: The Big Questions, 2d ed., edited by P. van Inwagen and D. Zimmerman (Malden, MA: Blackwell 2008), pp. 347 361. <BR>&rarr; <a name="106"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_560.htm">Olson (Eric) - An Argument for Animalism</A>"</li><li>Olson, E. What Are We? A Study in Personal Ontology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Chapter 9 discusses a variety of metaphysical objections to animalism, concluding that it may require a sparse ontology of material objects. <BR>&rarr; <a name="183"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2710.htm">Olson (Eric) - What are We?</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="107"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_12/Abstract_12018.htm">Olson (Eric) - What Are We? What Now?</A>"</li><li>Snowdon, P. Persons, Animals, Ourselves. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. A sensitive discussion, bringing the literature s breezy thought experiments down to earth. <BR>&rarr; <a name="184"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6358.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - Persons, Animals, Ourselves</A>"</li><li>Toner, P.  Hylemorphic Animalism. Philosophical Studies 155.1 (2011): 65-81. Argues that animalism is more attractive when combined with a hylemorphic account of substance. <BR>&rarr; <a name="108"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_23/Abstract_23082.htm">Toner (Patrick) - Hylemorphic animalism</A>"</li><li>Unger, P.  The Survival of the Sentient. Special Issue: Action and Freedom. Edited by James E. Tomberlin. Philosophical Perspectives 14 (2000): 325 348. Forcefully argues against animalism on the basis of its implications about our identity over time. <BR>&rarr; <a name="109"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5167.htm">Unger (Peter) - The Survival of the Sentient</A>"</li><li>van Inwagen, P. Material Beings. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990. Sections 9 and 13 offer a clear and detailed account of animalism s implications for our identity over time; section 15 defends them against standard objections.<BR>&rarr; <a name="185"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_49.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Material Beings</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="110"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3541.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - The Proposed Answer</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="111"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3545.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Artifacts</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="112"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3547.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Brain Transplants</A>"<BR> </li></ol><BR><BR><a id="SynchronicIdentity"></a><u><b>Synchronic Identity</b></u><BR><BR>Whereas personal identity over time is about what determines whether a person existing at one time also exists at other times, synchronic identity is about what determines <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_19">how many of us there are at any one time</A></U><SUB>19</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_19"></A>. This question has received less attention than its importance might merit and is often confused with others. (For better or worse, the vast literature on commissurotomy and multiple personality seldom addresses it.)  Liberals, represented by Campbell and McMahan 2010, Puccetti 1973, Rovane 1998, Wilkes 1988, and, more tentatively, Nagel 1971, say that the number of human people can vary independently of the number of human organisms.  Conservatives deny this: Brown 2001 and van Inwagen 1990 criticize arguments for liberal views, while Olson 2003 attacks the views themselves. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Brown, M.  Multiple Personality and Personal Identity. Philosophical Psychology 14.4 (2001): 435 447. Argues that multiple personality can be explained in terms of failure of autobiographical memory and is of no metaphysical import, and attempts to diagnose the attraction of liberal views. <BR>&rarr; <a name="113"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4993.htm">Brown (M.T.) - Multiple Personality and Personal Identity</A>"</li><li>Campbell, T., and J. McMahan.  Animalism and the Varieties of Conjoined Twinning. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31.4 (2010): 285 301. Argues that the number of people in actual cases of conjoined twins is inconsistent with any familiar account of <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_734.htm">what we are</A><SUP>20</SUP>, and in particular with our being organisms. <BR>&rarr; <a name="114"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21016.htm">Campbell (Tim) & McMahan (Jeff) - Animalism and the Varieties of Conjoined Twinning</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a href="#Animalism">Animalism</a></li><li>Nagel, T.  Brain Bisection and the Unity of Consciousness. Synthse 22 (1971): 396 413. Influential but inconclusive paper about whether commissurotomy creates two conscious beings within a single organism. Reprinted in his Mortal Questions (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1979) and in Perry 2008 (cited under <a href="#Anthologies">Anthologies</a>). <BR>&rarr; <a name="115"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_190.htm">Nagel (Thomas) - Brain Bisection and the Unity of Consciousness</A>"</li><li>Olson, E.  Was Jekyll Hyde? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (2003): 328 348. Argues that it is metaphysically impossible for two or more people to share a single human organism as a result of multiple personality. <BR>&rarr; <a name="116"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5208.htm">Olson (Eric) - Was Jekyll Hyde?</A>"</li><li>Puccetti, R.  Brain Bisection and Personal Identity. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 24 (1973): 339 355. Defends the <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_21">surprising claim</A></U><SUB>21</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_21"></A> that, owing to lack of coordination between cerebral hemispheres, there are two people within every normal human organism. <BR>&rarr; <a name="117"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5166.htm">Puccetti (Roland) - Brain Bisection and Personal Identity</A>"</li><li>Rovane, C. The Bounds of Agency: An Essay in Revisionary Metaphysics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998. Argues that the number of people at a given time is determined by facts about the unity of agency. Human beings who cooperate can make up a group person (and fail to be people themselves), while a disunified human being can be the home of several people. <BR>&rarr; <a name="186"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_405.htm">Rovane (Carol) - The Bounds of Agency: An Essay in Revisionary Metaphysics</A>"</li><li>van Inwagen, P. Material Beings. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990. Section 12 argues that no amount of psychological disunity, even the possession of two separate organs of thought, implies the existence of two thinking beings. <BR>&rarr; <a name="187"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_49.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Material Beings</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="118"></a>"<A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3544.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Unity and Thinking</A>"</li><li>Wilkes, K. Real People: Personal Identity without Thought Experiments. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988. Chapters 4 and 5 are careful discussions of the scientific literature on multiple personality and commissurotomy, respectively.<BR>&rarr; <a name="188"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_159.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Real People: Personal Identity Without Thought Experiments</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="119"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3669.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Fugues, Hypnosis, and Multiple Personality</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="120"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3670.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Being in Two Minds</A>"<BR> </li></ol><BR><BR><a id="Personhood"></a><u><b>Personhood</b></u><BR><BR>What is it to be a person? What is necessary, and what suffices, for something to count as a person, as opposed to a nonperson? What have we people (or persons) got that nonpeople haven t got? The question acquires much of its interest from the consideration of difficult cases. Could a rational parrot be a person, as Locke famously claimed? An intelligent computer (if there could be such a thing)? At what point in our development do we ourselves become people? Baker 2000, Dennett 1976, and Frankfurt 1971 argue that to be a person is (roughly) to have certain psychological capacities. Wiggins 1980 objects to this, and Snowdon 1996 criticizes Wiggins s proposal. Wilkes 1988 discusses the personhood of infants and fetuses. Strawson 1959 and Ayer 1964 are mainly concerned with what sort of thing could be a subject of thought and consciousness. <BR><ol type="1"><li>Ayer, A. J.  The Concept of a Person. In The Concept of a Person and Other Essays. By A. J. Ayer, 82 128. London: Macmillan, 1964. A wide-ranging critical discussion of Strawson. <BR>&rarr; <a name="121"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_02/Abstract_2364.htm">Ayer (A.J.) - The Concept of a Person</A>"</li><li>Baker, L. R. Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Chapter 3 and the first part of chapter 4 develop an account of a first-person perspective and argue that to be a person is to have the capacity for such a perspective. This appears to be separable from the book s more controversial claims about personal ontology. <BR>&rarr; <a name="189"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_66.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="122"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3676.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - The First-Person Perspective</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="123"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3677.htm">Baker (Lynne Rudder) - The Constitution View of Human Persons</A>"</li><li>Dennett, D.  Conditions of Personhood. In The Identities of Persons. Edited by A. Rorty, 175 196. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. Argues among other things that whether something is a person depends on what attitude we take toward it. <BR>&rarr; <a name="124"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_545.htm">Dennett (Daniel) - Conditions of Personhood</A>"</li><li>Frankfurt, H.  Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person. Journal of Philosophy 68.1 (1971): 5 20. Famous paper arguing that to be a person, as opposed to just any psychological being, is to have second-order desires. Reprinted in Free Will, edited by G. Watson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), pp. 322 336. <BR>&rarr; <a name="125"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_207.htm">Frankfurt (Harry) - Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person</A>"</li><li>Snowdon, P.  Persons and Personal Identity. In Essays for David Wiggins: Identity, Truth and Value. Edited by S. Lovibond and S. G. Williams, 33 48. Aristotelian Society series 16. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996. A perceptive critical discussion of Wiggins s  animal-attribute account of personhood, among other things. Wiggins responds in the same volume. <BR>&rarr; <a name="126"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1220.htm">Snowdon (Paul) - Persons and Personal Identity</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="127"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_04/Abstract_4191.htm">Wiggins (David) - Reply to Snowdon (Persons and Personal Identity)</A>"</li><li>Strawson, P. F. Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics. London: Routledge, 1959. Chapter 3 is the source of the view that a person is by definition a subject of both  M-predicates and  P-predicates. Enormously influential despite its difficulty. <BR>&rarr; <a name="190"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_164.htm">Strawson (Peter) - Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="128"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3888.htm">Strawson (Peter) - Persons</A>"</li><li>Wiggins, D. <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P20784_22">Sameness and Substance</A></U><SUB>22</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P20784_22"></A>. Oxford: Blackwell, 1980. Chapter 6 discusses Strawson 1959 and argues that a person is by definition a kind of organism. A rich, though difficult source that could have been included under a number of categories. <BR>&rarr; <a name="191"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_54.htm">Wiggins (David) - Sameness and Substance</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="129"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3496.htm">Wiggins (David) - Personal Identity (S&S)</A>"</li><li>Wilkes, K. Real People: Personal Identity without Thought Experiments. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988. Chapter 2,  Infants and Foetuses, is a perceptive discussion of real cases. <BR>&rarr; <a name="192"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_159.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Real People: Personal Identity Without Thought Experiments</A>"<BR>&rarr; <a name="130"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3667.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Infants and Foetuses</A>"</li></ol></FONT><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_1"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_1"><B>Footnote 1</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is the write-up as it was when this Abstract was last output, with text as at the timestamp indicated (21/04/2018 20:05:17). </li><li><A HREF = "../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1260.htm">Link to Latest Write-Up Note</A>. </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_2"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_2"><B>Footnote 2</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Well, I was baffled until I spotted Locke s distinction between  person and  man , but then all seemed clear. </li><li>But I ve probably missed something. </li><li>See my <a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_876.htm">essay</a>. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_3"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_3"><B>Footnote 3</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>What are these? </li><li>There s the following exchange with David Mackie raised by this paper:- <BR>&rarr; <a name="131"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5075.htm">Mackie (David) - Animalism Versus Lockeanism: No Contest</A>", and<BR>&rarr; <a name="132"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5035.htm">Noonan (Harold) - Animalism versus Lockeanism: Reply to Mackie</A>"</li><li>Anything else? </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_4"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_4"><B>Footnote 4</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>What does this mean?</li><li>What is a  generous account? </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_5"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_5"><B>Footnote 5</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>See <a name="133"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_01/Abstract_1791.htm">Shoemaker (Sydney) - Personal Identity: a Materialist Account</A>".</li><li>Just what is the difference of approach? </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_6"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_6"><B>Footnote 6</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>While Olson doesn t recommend the whole issue, it looks an interesting source. </li><li>See <a name="193"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_06/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_6602.htm">Catterson (Troy), Ed. - Synthese Special Issue on Personal Identity</A>". </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_7"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_7"><B>Footnote 7</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>This paper addresses Olson s <a name="7"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_872.htm">Thinking Animal Argument</a>. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_9"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_9"><B>Footnote 9</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>See my <a name="8"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_94.htm">Note</a> on this topic, which doesn t seem to be quite Olson s take on the topic. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_10"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_10"><B>Footnote 10</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is a very muddled explanation. </li><li>As always, I don t like Olson s use of  people when he means  persons . </li><li>I had thought that Olson himself was a reductionist  in that our identity can be tracked irrespective of any of the psychological qualities necessary for qualifying as a person. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_11"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_11"><B>Footnote 11</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Presumably Parfit s  Relation R . </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_12"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_12"><B>Footnote 12</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>I m never sure whether Parfit believed that we could survive without persisting. </li><li>That is, <a name="9"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_90.htm">persisting</a> requires identity, whereas <a name="10"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_14.htm">survival</a> might only require a lesser relation. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_13"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_13"><B>Footnote 13</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Indeed! </li><li>However, at first sight, Chisholm s and Lowe s views  that we are mereological atoms  and Unger s (since repudiated) view that we do not exist, are more  surprising that Zimmerman s. </li><li>That said, I m not sure what Zimmerman s view is, other than that he s a dualist of some sort. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_14"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_14"><B>Footnote 14</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Is this Hudson s claim? </li><li>It sounds similar to <a name="136"></a><A HREF = "../../Authors/J/Author_Johnston (Mark).htm">Mark Johnston</A> s take on  Human Beings . </li><li>The difference may be that while Johnston says we could survive as a brain, in a maximally mutilated form, that s not <a name="11"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_734.htm">what we are</a>  most fundamentally . </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_15"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_15"><B>Footnote 15</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Is this a caricature of Lowe s view?</li><li>Anything human-being-sized isn t mereologically simple. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_19"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_19"><B>Footnote 19</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Is this right? </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_21"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_21"><B>Footnote 21</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>This is the second time Olson has been  surprised !</li><li>See my <a name="12"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_116.htm">Note on Commissurotomy</a> for further discussion. </li></ul> <a name="On-Page_Link_P20784_22"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P20784_22"><B>Footnote 22</A></B></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Why not <a name="194"></a>"<A HREF = "../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1312.htm">Wiggins (David) - Sameness and Substance Renewed</A>", ie:-<BR>&rarr; <a name="134"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3505.htm">Wiggins (David) - Personal Identity</A>"? </li></ul> <FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-17T12:06" pubdate>17/08/2018 12:06:45</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>