<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Carruthers (Peter) - Sympathy and subjectivity (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_21/PaperSummary_21459.htm">Sympathy and subjectivity</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/C/Author_Carruthers (Peter).htm">Carruthers (Peter)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 77 (1999), 465-482</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=800><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_21/PaperSummary_21459.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_21/PaperCitings_21459.htm">Books / Papers Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_21/PapersToNotes_21459.htm">Notes Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Author s Abstract</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>This paper makes four main assumptions  two about consciousness and two about value  which together raise an important question concerning the possible scope of morality and moral concern. I shall make little attempt to defend these assumptions, beyond saying just enough to explain and motivate them. Each of them can be made to seem plausible, at least; and three have been defended at length elsewhere. </li><li>If these premises are granted, then fundamental questions are raised about the moral status of non-human animals. But even those who are not prepared to grant one or more of my assumptions should take an interest in the questions they generate, and in my proposed answers. For the discussion will lead us to look quite closely at the nature of psychological (as opposed to biological) harm, and at the proper objects of sympathy; raising issues which have not, I think, been discussed before. </li><li>Even if one or more of my assumptions are rejected, there will remain the question whether, and in what sense, sympathy is necessarily tied to subjectivity  which is not a question with quite the same practical import as the one I address, admittedly; but an interesting one nonetheless.</li><li>The Assumptions:- <ul type="disc"><li><b>A1</b>: All of the mental states of non-human animals (with the possible exception of the great apes) are non-conscious, ones.</li><li><b>A2</b>: Non-conscious mental states <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P21459_1">lack</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P21459_1"></A> phenomenology, or subjective 'feel'.</li><li><b>A3</b>: Metaphysical realism about moral values is false; rather, such values are somehow constructed from a basis in human attitudes, or human reason, or both.</li><li><b>A4</b>: Attempts to ground sympathy in interests either collapse into a form of moral realism, or covertly appeal to the more basic importance of psychological harm. </li></ul> </li></ol></FONT><hr><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>Comment: </B><BR><BR>See <a name="W3091W"></a><A HREF = "http://faculty.philosophy.umd.edu/pcarruthers/Sympathy-and-subjectivity.htm" TARGET = "_top">Link</A> and <a name="W3092W"></a><A HREF = "http://faculty.philosophy.umd.edu/pcarruthers/Sympathy%20and%20subjectivity.pdf" TARGET = "_top">Link</A>.<BR><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U></B><a name="On-Page_Link_P21459_1"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P21459_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: <ol type="1"><li>Carruthers <em>Conclusion 1</em> is: <ul type="disc"><li><FONT COLOR = "800080">The mental states of non-human animals lack phenomenal feels (unless those animals are apes, perhaps).</FONT> </li></ul></li><li>If this is what his theory of consciousness leads to, it is plain wrong. </li><li>And, even if it should happen to be true, we do not see its truth so clearly as to be able to act on it with any confidence  given the dreadful consequences of being wrong  so we should not act on it at all. </li></ol> <FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T09:37" pubdate>02/08/2018 09:37:44</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>