<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Carruthers (Peter) - Replies to Critics: Explaining Subjectivity (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_21/PaperSummary_21460.htm">Replies to Critics: Explaining Subjectivity</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/C/Author_Carruthers (Peter).htm">Carruthers (Peter)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Psyche 6(3), February 2000</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=400><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_21/PaperSummary_21460.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><U>Author s Abstract</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ul type="disc"><li>This article replies to the main objections raised by the commentators on <a name="1"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21458.htm">Carruthers (Peter) - Natural theories of consciousness</A>" (1998). <ol type="1"><li>It discusses the question of what evidence is relevant to the assessment of dispositional higher-order thought (HOT) theory; </li><li>it explains how the actual properties of phenomenal consciousness can be dispositionally constituted; </li><li>it discusses the case of pains and other bodily sensations in non-human animals and young children; </li><li>it sketches the case for preferring higher-order to first-order theories of phenomenal consciousness; and </li><li>it replies to some miscellaneous points and objections. </li></ol></li><li>My guess is that readers of this journal will not want a blow-by-blow response to every detail in the ten commentaries in my target paper <a name="2"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21458.htm">Carruthers (Peter) - Natural theories of consciousness</A>". I shall concentrate on three general themes which figure in many of the papers: <ol type="1"><li>the role of empirical data, and an attendant charge that I have been engaged in bare <em>a priori</em> theorising; </li><li>a challenge to explain how mere dispositions to entertain higher-order thoughts (HOTs) about one's experiences could confer actual subjectivity on the latter; and </li><li>an argument that small children and other animals surely feel their bodily sensations, contrary to the (alleged) implications of HOT theory. </li></ol></li><li>I shall then <ol start = "4" type="1"><li>say something about the reasons for preferring higher-order to first-order accounts of phenomenal consciousness, before </li><li>closing with some miscellaneous defensive remarks.</li></ol> </li></ul></FONT><hr><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>Comment: </B><BR><BR>See <a name="W3089W"></a><A HREF = "http://www.theassc.org/files/assc/2463.pdf" TARGET = "_top">Link</A> (Defunct).<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T09:37" pubdate>02/08/2018 09:37:45</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>