<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Pap (Arthur) - Nominalism, Empiricism and Universals - II (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_21/PaperSummary_21602.htm">Nominalism, Empiricism and Universals - II</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/P/Author_Pap (Arthur).htm">Pap (Arthur)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Philosophical Quarterly (1950-), Vol. 10, No. 38 (Jan., 1960), pp. 44-60</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=600><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_21/PaperSummary_21602.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_21/PaperCitings_21602.htm">Books / Papers Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><u>Author s Conclusion</u><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>I conclude that we can, indeed, avoid talking about Newtonian absolute places and times, in the spirit of relativity theory, and substitute empirically meaningful talk about measurable relations between events. But it is confusion to say that places and times are themselves relations. They are, not relations, but relational properties, defined-once the theoretical language is empirically interpreted-in terms of names which in turn must be defined by egocentric particulars. And such relational properties, as I have explained, are not <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1008.htm">universals</A><SUP>1</SUP>. The ideal of a purely realistic construction of the world by means of a language which does not contain names of particulars-the sort of names which are the only names a nominalist can countenance in good philosophical conscience-is an impossible ideal because we find, if only we push the analysis down to epistemological rock bottom, that egocentric particulars must be used in order to interpret co-ordinate descriptions in the observation language. </li><li>An interesting result of our analysis is that the "principle of <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>2</SUP>" can be secured without postulating substrata of any kind, and consequently without violating the empiricists' cherished requirement of ontological economy ("Occam's razor"): it is none other than the medieval's <em>haecceitas</em>. It is all right to say that space-time, whether phenomenal or physical, is the principle of <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>3</SUP> provided one realizes that this means no more than that whatever zero-event is conventionally used as origin of the reference frame must in the final epistemological analysis be interpreted in terms of egocentric particulars. </li></ol></FONT><hr><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>Comment: </B><BR><BR>Conclusion of <a name="4"></a>"<A HREF = "../../Abstracts/Abstract_21/Abstract_21601.htm">Pap (Arthur) - Nominalism, Empiricism and Universals - I</A>".<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-02T09:39" pubdate>02/08/2018 09:39:36</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>