- This pseudo-Paper is intended as the mechanism to record time spent on the Note 'Embryo1' during my Thesis research, as from end October 2016.
- For the actual time recorded, click on "Paper Summary" above.
Write-up2 (as at 31/08/2017 19:35:02): Embryo
- In humans, the immediate post-fertilization product – the zygote4 – develops by division until it implants as the embryo (Wikipedia: Embryo). Until then it is called a proembryo (Wikipedia: Proembryo); a morula (Wikipedia: Morula) after 4 divisions – 16 blastomeres – and a blastocyst (Wikipedia: Blastocyst) by the 5th day. The implanted embryo is called a fetus (Wikipedia: Fetus) after 11 weeks.
- In the philosophy of personal identity, the question arises when the human being5 or the human person6 arises. Additionally – and relatedly – was I ever an embryo (or a zygote7, or a fetus8).
- Most philosophers agree that an embryo isn’t a person9, because it does not possess the appropriate psychological attributes.
- Many philosophers contend that a human embryo isn’t a human being either – in that it hasn’t the appropriate set of organs.
- In addition, the question whether I was ever an embryo is complicated by differences over the definition – or maybe ontological category – of “person”. Some philosophers insist that an individual can be a person on account of its expected future properties, or actual or once anticipated past properties, irrespective of its present capacities.
- There’s lots written in discussion of the ethical use of embryos that I will need to ignore unless it has metaphysical implications.
- There’s also a degree of overlap amongst the Notes on Embryos, Zygotes and Fetuses.
- A reading list (where not covered elsewhere) might start with:-
- "Anscombe (G.E.M.) - Embryos and Final Causes", Anscombe
- "Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Are Embryos Persons?", Baker, 2006
- "Baker (Lynne Rudder) - When Do Persons Begin and End?", Baker, 2005
- "Baker (Lynne Rudder) - When Does a Person Begin?", Baker, 2005
- "Cameron (Nigel M. de S.) - Embryos and Ethics: The Warnock Report in Debate", Cameron, 1987
- "CIBA Foundation - Human Embryo Research: Yes or No?", CIBA, 198610
- "Damschen (Gregor), Gomez-Lobo (Alfonso) & Schonecker (Dieter) - Sixteen Days? A Reply to B. Smith and B. Brogaard on the Beginning of Human Individuals", Damschen et al, 2006
- "Ford (Norman) - When Did I Begin: Conception of the Human Individual in History, Philosophy and Science", Ford, 1988
- "Ghiselin (Michael) - Embryology as History and as Law", Ghiselin, 1997
- "Hershenov (David) - Embryos, Four-Dimensionalism and Moral Status", Hershenov, 2011
- "Hershenov (David) - Olson's Embryo Problem", Hershenov, 2002
- "Hershenov (David) - Perdure and Murder", Hershenov, 1986
- "Hershenov (David) & Koch-Hershenov (Rose J.) - Anscombe on Embryos and Persons", Hershenov, 2016
- "Hershenov (David) & Taylor (Adam P.) - Dualism, Panpsychism, and the Bioethical Status of Brainless Embryos", Hershenov+Taylor
- "Lockwood (Michael) - When Does a Life Begin?", Lockwood, 1986
- "Oderberg (David) - The Metaphysical Status of the Embryo: Some Arguments Revisited", Oderberg, 2008
- "Shoemaker (David) - Embryos, Souls, and the Fourth Dimension", Shoemaker, 2005
- "Smith (Barry) & Brogaard (Berit) - Sixteen Days", Smith, 2003
- "Tollefsen (Christopher) - Embryos, Individuals, and Persons: An Argument Against Embryo Creation and Research", Tollefsen, 2001
- "Warnock (Mary) - A Question of Life - The Warnock Report on Human Fertilisation and Embryology", Warnock, 1985
- This is mostly a place-holder11. Currently, mostly see the categorised reading-list below.
- This is the write-up as it was when this Abstract was last output, with text as at the timestamp indicated (31/08/2017 19:35:02).
- Link to Latest Write-Up Note.
Footnote 10: See, in particular,
- A number of my philosophical Notes are “promissory notes” currently only listing the books and papers (if any) I possess on the topic concerned.
- I’ve decided to add some text – whether by way of motivation, or something more substantive – for all these identified topics related to my Thesis.
- As I want to do this fairly quickly, the text may be confused or show surprising ignorance.
- The reader (if such exists) will have to bear with me, and display the principle of charity while this footnote exists.
→ "McLaren (Ann) - Prelude to Embryogenesis", and
→ "Williams (Bernard) - Types of Moral Argument Against Embryo Research".
Text Colour Conventions (see disclaimer)
- Blue: Text by me; © Theo Todman, 2018