<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>McLaughlin (Brian) & Bennett (Karen) - Supervenience (Theo Todman's Book Collection - Paper Abstracts) </title> <link href="../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../TT_ICO.png" /></head> <BODY> <CENTER> <div id="header"><HR><h1>Theo Todman's Web Page - Paper Abstracts</h1><HR></div><A name="Top"></A> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_23/PaperSummary_23320.htm">Supervenience</A></th></tr> <tr><th><A HREF = "../../Authors/M/Author_McLaughlin (Brian).htm">McLaughlin (Brian)</a> & <A HREF = "../../Authors/B/Author_Bennett (Karen).htm">Bennett (Karen)</a></th></tr> <tr><th>Source: Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, 2005-18</th></tr> <tr><th>Paper - Abstract</th></tr> </TABLE> </CENTER> <P><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=600><tr><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_23/PaperSummary_23320.htm">Paper Summary</A></td><td><A HREF = "../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_23/PapersToNotes_23320.htm">Notes Citing this Paper</A></td><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td></tr></TABLE></CENTER></P> <hr><P><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><u>Author s Abstract</u><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>A set of properties A <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">supervenes</A><SUP>1</SUP> upon another set B just in case no two things can differ with respect to A-properties without also differing with respect to their B-properties. In slogan form,  there cannot be an A-difference without a B-difference . </li><li>As we shall see, this slogan can be cashed out in many different ways. But to illustrate the basic idea, imagine that there is a perfect forger. Her copies of paintings not only fool the art dealers, but are in fact exact duplicates of the originals down to the precise placement of every molecule of pigment  indeed, down to every microphysical detail. Suppose that she produces such a copy of El Greco s <em>A View of Toledo</em>. It is of course different from the original in various respects  it is a forgery, it was not painted by El Greco, it is worth quite a bit less at Sotheby s, and so forth. But the forgery is also exactly like the original in other respects. It is the same shape, size, and weight. The surface of the canvas contains the same arrangements of colors and shapes  a blue rectangle here, a green swirl there. Indeed, it looks just the same, at least to a single viewer under identical lighting conditions and so forth. Perhaps it is even just as beautiful as the original, though that is more controversial. </li><li>The properties that the forgery is guaranteed to share with the original are those that <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">supervene</A><SUP>2</SUP> upon its microphysical properties. Two paintings that are microphysically just alike are guaranteed to be just alike in the arrangement of colors and shapes on their canvases. That is, you cannot change the arrangement of colors and shapes on a painting s canvas without changing its microphysical properties. This is just to say that the arrangement of colors and shapes <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">supervenes</A><SUP>3</SUP> on its microphysical properties. </li><li><a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>4</SUP> is a central notion in analytic philosophy. It has been invoked in almost every corner of the field. For example, <ol type="i"><li>It has been claimed that aesthetic, moral, and mental properties <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">supervene</A><SUP>5</SUP> upon physical properties. </li><li>It has also been claimed that <a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>6</SUP> truths <a name="7"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">supervene</A><SUP>7</SUP> on <a name="8"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">non-modal</A><SUP>8</SUP> ones, and that general truths <a name="9"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">supervene</A><SUP>9</SUP> on particular truths. </li><li>Further, <a name="10"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">supervenience</A><SUP>10</SUP> has been used to distinguish various kinds of internalism and externalism, and to test claims of reducibility and conceptual analysis. </ol></li><li><a name="11"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>11</SUP> is related to but distinct from notions like grounding and ontological dependence. We directly address the relation between these notions in 3.5 (much of that section has been part of this entry since its initial publication in 2005). </li></ol></FONT><BR><u>Contents</u><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Introduction </li><li>History <BR>&rarr; 2.1 <a name="12"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm"> Supervenience </A><SUP>12</SUP> as a Philosophical Term of Art <BR>&rarr; 2.2 Origin of the Term </li><li><a name="13"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>13</SUP> and Other Relations <BR>&rarr; 3.1 The <a name="14"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">Modal</A><SUP>14</SUP> Force of the <a name="15"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>15</SUP> Relation <BR>&rarr; 3.2 <a name="16"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>16</SUP> and Entailment <BR>&rarr; 3.3 <a name="17"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>17</SUP> and Reduction <BR>&rarr; 3.4. <a name="18"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>18</SUP> and Ontological Innocence <BR>&rarr; 3.5 <a name="19"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>19</SUP>, Grounding, and Ontological Dependence <BR>&rarr; 3.6 <a name="20"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>20</SUP> and Realization <BR>&rarr; 3.7 <a name="21"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>21</SUP> and Explanation <BR>&rarr; 3.8 Tallying Up </li><li>Varieties of <a name="22"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>22</SUP> <BR>&rarr; 4.1 Weak and Strong Individual <a name="23"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>23</SUP> <BR>&rarr; 4.2 Regional <a name="24"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>24</SUP> <BR>&rarr; 4.3 Global <a name="25"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>25</SUP> <BR>&rarr; 4.4 Similarity Based <a name="26"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>26</SUP><BR>&rarr; 4.5 Multiple Domain <a name="27"></a><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">Supervenience</A><SUP>27</SUP> </li><li>Applications <BR>&rarr; 5.1 An Argumentative Strategy <BR>&rarr; 5.2 Internalism/Externalism <BR>&rarr; 5.3 Haecceitism <BR>&rarr; 5.4 Characterizing Physicalism <BR>&rarr; 5.5 Coincident Entities and the  Grounding Problem </li></ol></FONT><hr><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>Comment: </B><BR><BR>First published Mon Jul 25, 2005; substantive revision Wed Jan 10, 2018<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR></P><a name="ColourConventions"></a><p><b>Text Colour Conventions (see <A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</b></p><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> <BR><HR><BR><CENTER> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-03T00:11" pubdate>03/08/2018 00:11:33</time> <br><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A></TD></TR> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>