- How we should think about biological individuals or agents and the roles they play in processes such as natural selection, speciation, and organismic development have become lively topics of discussion in the philosophy of biology in recent years. Individual organisms have been central to philosophical reﬂection on such processes, but they are not the only type of biological individual.
- For example, both genes and groups have been considered kinds of biological individual that function as units of selection. And some propose genomes are biological agents that code for organismal development.
- Focusing on organisms as one prominent kind of biological individual sheds substantial light on what biological individuals are. But to address broader questions about the structure of the biological world and its relation to human thought, we also need to reﬂect on biological individuals more generally.
- The Problem of Biological Individuality
- Organism-Centred Views of Biological Individuals
- Pluralism in the Face of Biological Heterogeneity?
- The Tripartite View of Organisms and Homeostatic Property Cluster Kinds
- Groups as Biological Agents: Superorganisms, Trait Groups, Species, Clades
- Genes: Shifting Views of Developmental Agency
- The Evolution of Biological Individuality
- Concluding Thoughts
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