The Hybrid Theory of Personal Identity
Kotak (Aakash)
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Paper - Abstract

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Author’s Conclusion

  1. Philosophers don't face a choice between the biological truism that we are human animals and the magnetic thesis that we would go with our cerebra. These central claims are reconcilable.
    1. One option is to assert that our substance kind is HUMAN ANIMAL and that cerebra can constitute humans. As we've seen, however, this stance is difficult to motivate.
    2. A second option is to assert that our substance kind is LOCKEAN PERSON and that HUMAN ANIMAL is our phase kind. But those who do so are saddled with the repugnant consequence that infants cease to exist at the onset of rationality and self-awareness.
    3. A third option is to endorse the Hybrid Theory1. What I hope to have shown is that this option is loaded with promise.
  2. [Because …]
    1. For one thing, Hybrid Theorists avoid the varied difficulties brought to light by the well-known too-many-thinkers objection to neo-Lockeanism, chief among which is the epistemic problem canvassed here.
    2. For another, Hybrid Theorists can handle the potentially problematic divergence-case in a metaphysically robust way.
    3. And for yet another, Hybrid Theorists tell a superior story to both animalists and neo-Lockeans about how we come into existence and the kinds of change we can survive. This benefit in particular is well worth the ontological cost.
  3. The Hybrid Theory2 captures the most promising answer to the question: what are we? The task now is to add to the account by addressing two related questions:
    1. what are our persistence conditions, and
    2. What is our fundamental nature?
    Given that we have already derived facts about the kind to which the Hybrid Theorist assigns us from facts about animals and Lockean persons, I see no reason why satisfactory answers should be out of the Hybrid Theorist's reach.

Relevant Reading List (relevance indicated in footnotes)
  1. "Arnadottir (Steinvor Tholl) - Functionalism and Thinking Animals", Árnadóttir, 20103
  2. "Ayers (Michael R.) - Locke (Vol 2 - Ontology)", Ayers4
  3. "Baker (Lynne Rudder) - Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View", Baker, 20005
  4. "Blatti (Stephan) & Snowdon (Paul), Eds. - Animalism: Introduction", Baker, 20166
  5. "Berniunas (Renatas) & Dranseika (Vilius) - Folk Concepts of Person and Identity: a Response to Nichols and Bruno", Berniūnas & Dranseika, 20167
  6. "Blatti (Stephan) - A New Argument for Animalism", Blatti, 20128
  7. "Blatti (Stephan) - Headhunters", Blatti, 20169
  8. "Blatti (Stephan) & Snowdon (Paul), Eds. - Animalism: Introduction", Blatti & Snowdon, 201610
  9. "Boorse (Christopher) - Wright on Functions", Boorse, 197611
  10. "Campbell (Tim) & McMahan (Jeff) - Animalism and the Varieties of Conjoined Twinning", Campbell & McMahan, 201612
  11. "Dretske (Fred) - Knowledge and the Flow of Information", Dretske, 198113
  12. "Fodor (Jerry) - Psychosemantics", Fodor, 198714
  13. "Gallois (Andre) - Occasions of Identity : a Study in the Metaphysics of Persistence, Change, and Sameness", Gallois, 199815
  14. "Gillett (Carl) - What you are and the evolution of organs, souls and superorganisms: a reply to Blatti", Gillett, 201316
  15. "Hawley (Katherine) - How Things Persist", Hawley, 200117
  16. "Hawley (Katherine) - Fission, Fusion and Intrinsic Facts", Hawley, 200518
  17. "Johnston (Mark) - 'Human Beings' Revisited: My Body is Not an Animal", Johnston, 200719
  18. "Johnston (Mark) - Remnant Persons: Animalism's Undoing", Johnston, 201620
  19. "Liao (S. Matthew) - Twinning, Inorganic Replacement, and the Organism View", Liao, 201021
  20. "Locke (John), Nidditch (Peter) - An Essay Concerning Human Understanding", Locke, 197522
  21. "Madden (Rory) - Human Persistence", Madden, 2016a23
  22. "Madden (Rory) - Human Persistence", Madden, 2016b24
  23. "Millikan (Ruth Garrett) - An Input Condition for Teleosemantics? Reply to Shea (and Godfrey-Smith)", Millikan, 200725
  24. "Nichols (Shaun) & Bruno (Michael) - Intuitions about Personal Identity: An Empirical Study", Nichols & Bruno, 201026
  25. "Noonan (Harold) - The Closest Continuer Theory of Identity", Noonan, 198527
  26. "Noonan (Harold) - Animalism Versus Lockeanism: A Current Controversy", Noonan, 199828
  27. "Nozick (Robert) - Philosophical Explanations", Nozick, 198129
  28. "Olson (Eric) - Human People Or Human Animals", Olson, 199530
  29. "Olson (Eric) - Was I Ever a Fetus?", Olson, 199731
  30. "Olson (Eric) - Personal Identity", Olson, 2002a32
  31. "Olson (Eric) - Thinking Animals and the Reference of 'I'", Olson, 2002b33
  32. "Olson (Eric) - What Does Functionalism Tell Us About Personal Identity", Olson, 2002c34
  33. "Olson (Eric) - An Argument for Animalism", Olson, 200335
  34. "Olson (Eric) - Animalism and the Corpse Problem", Olson, 200436
  35. "Olson (Eric) - What are We? A Study of Personal Ontology", Olson, 200737
  36. "Olson (Eric) - The Remnant-Person Problem", Olson, 201638
  37. "Parfit (Derek) - Personal Identity", Parfit39
  38. "Parfit (Derek) - We Are Not Human Beings", Parfit, 201640
  39. "Shoemaker (Sydney) - Self, Body, and Coincidence", Shoemaker, 199941
  40. "Shoemaker (Sydney) - Persons, Animals, and Identity", Shoemaker, 200842
  41. Sydney Shoemaker (201143). On What We Are. In S. Gallagher (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Self (pp. 352-71). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  42. "Snowdon (Paul) - Persons, Animals, and Ourselves", Snowdon44
  43. "Sosa (Ernest) - How Must Knowledge Be Modally Related to What Is Known?", Sosa, 199945
  44. "Van Inwagen (Peter) - Material Beings", Van Inwagen, 199046
  45. "Wright (Larry) - Functions", Wright, 197347


In-Page Footnotes

Footnote 3: Footnote 4: Footnote 5: Footnote 6: Footnote 7: Footnote 8: Footnote 9: Footnote 10: Footnote 11: Footnote 12: Footnote 13: Footnote 14: Footnote 15: Footnote 16: Footnote 17: Footnote 18: Footnote 19: Footnote 20: Footnote 21: Footnote 22: Footnote 23: Footnote 24: Footnote 25: Footnote 26: Footnote 27: Footnote 28: Footnote 29: Footnote 30: Footnote 31: Footnote 32: Footnote 33: Footnote 34: Footnote 35: Footnote 36: Footnote 37: Footnote 38: Footnote 39: Footnote 40: Footnote 41: Footnote 42: Footnote 43:
Footnote 44: Footnote 45: Footnote 46: Footnote 47:

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