|The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture|
|Barkow (Jerome), Cosmides (Leda) & Tooby (John), Eds.|
|This Page provides (where held) the Abstract of the above Book and those of all the Papers contained in it.|
Oxford University Press, paperback edition, 1995
"Cosmides (Leda) & Tooby (John) & Barkow (Jerome) - The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture - Introduction"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Introduction
"Cosmides (Leda) & Tooby (John) - The psychological foundations of culture"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 1
Author's Abstract: We argue the following points:
"Symons (Donald) - On the use and misuse of Darwinism in the study of human behavior"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 2
One of the major aims of this essay is to critically analyze the following hypothesis, which many scholars believe to be entailed by the proposition that human beings are the products of natural selection: human behavior per se can be expected to be adaptive (i.e., reproduction-maximizing), and hence a science of human behavior can be based on analyses of the reproductive consequences of human action… my primary goal in this essay is to convince the reader that because Darwinism is a theory of adaptation it illuminates human behavior only insofar as it illuminates the adaptations that constitute the machinery of behavior; describe the adaptationist program in biology; try to show how this program can be applied fruitfully to human psychological adaptations, using the perception of sexual attractiveness as an example; illustrate how social scientists, whose goal is to illuminate phenomena that are not themselves adaptations, can use evolutionary psychology to guide their research; argue that no approach to human behavior can be simultaneously psychologically agnostic and genuinely Darwinian.
"Cosmides (Leda) & Tooby (John) - Cognitive adaptations for social exchange"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 3
Evolutionary biologists have analyzed the conditions under which adaptations for engaging in cooperative behavior can be expected to evolve; these analyses show that cognitive mechanisms for engaging in cooperation can be selected for only if they solve certain complex information-processing problems; to solve these problems efficiently, the cognitive mechanisms involved must have certain specific design features; review experiments that have been conducted to see whether these predicted design features actually exist.
"McGrew (W.C.) & Feistner (Anna T.C.) - Two nonhuman primate models for the evolution of human food sharing: Chimpanzees and callitrichids"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 4
Summarize briefly current knowledge of food sharing in other primates; focus on the two types of primates who engage in habitual food sharing--chimpanzees and callitrichids (marmosets and tamarins); use Isaac's (1978) 10 features of food sharing to contrast Homo sapiens with our nearest living relations and to contrast chimpanzees and callitrichids; these features will be reordered, modified, corrected, and updated, whenever necessary, in an effort to say whether the human-nonhuman contrasts are ones of kind or only of degree; return to the themes of the social and the technological, in an attempt at synthesis.
"Buss (David M.) - Mate preference mechanisms: Consequences for partner choice and intrasexual competition"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 5
Examines four fundamental premises: (a) human mate preference mechanisms are central psychological procedures that affect actual mating decisions, (b) mate preferences exert a powerful selection pressure on human intrasexual competition, (c) there exists a class of acts generated by each preference mechanism, and (d) the evolution of psychological mechanisms cannot be understood fully without identifying the class of acts generated by each psychological mechanism.
"Ellis (Bruce J.) - The evolution of sexual attraction: Evaluative mechanisms in women"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 6
Argue …that general principles guiding female mate preferences can be discerned at the appropriate level of abstraction and that the evolution-based concept of "mate value" (Symons 1987a) provides a useful heuristic in this endeavor; review the psychological literature on male sexual attractiveness in order to see whether women find traits that would have signaled high mate value in our natural environment attractive in men… status (economic status, ornamentation, dispositional characteristics, willingness to invest, structural powerlessness); physical dominance (high-dominance personality, body language, physiognomy, height); mate choice paradox.
"Wilson (Margo) & Daly (Martin) - The Man who Mistook his Wife for a Chattel"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 7
Argue that sexually proprietary male psychologies are evolved solutions to the adaptive problems of male reproductive competition and potential misdirection of paternal investments in species with mistakable paternity; describe the complex interrelated design of mating and paternal decision rules in some well-studied avian examples; consider the peculiarities of the human species in this context; characterize some features of human male sexual proprietariness, contrasting men's versus women's perspectives and actions; review some of the diverse consequences and manifestations of this ubiquitous male mindset.
"Profet (Margie) - Pregnancy sickness as adaptation: A deterrent to maternal ingestion of teratogens"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 8
"Mann (Janet) - Nurturance or negligence: Maternal psychology and behavioral preference among preterm twins"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 9
|.|Explore some of the psychological mechanisms involved in maternal decisions to care for and invest in high-risk offspring; |.|attempt to integrate psychological and evolutionary approaches to the study of child neglect by examining the relationship among maternal psychology, maternal behavior, and infant health characteristics in detail among a small population of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) preterm twins.
"Fernald (Anne) - Human maternal vocalizations to infants as biologically relevant signals: An evolutionary perspective"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 10
Argue that the characteristic vocal melodies of human mothers' speech to infants are biologically relevant signals that have been shaped by natural selection… discuss the current debate about the status of human language as an evolved mechanism, as a way of examining criteria for when it is appropriate to invoke natural selection as a causal explanation for the evolution of human behavior; examine the antiadaptationist argument that language is an "exaptation" and therefore not a product of selection, as well as the argument that adaptive features must be designed for optimal efficiency… the characteristics of mothers' speech to infants are described in some detail, along with research on the communicative functions of intonation in infant-directed speech; examine infant-directed speech in the context of ethological research on vocal communication and maternal behavior in nonhuman primates, in order to identify selection pressure relevant to understanding the adaptive functions of human maternal speech.
"Boulton (Michael) & Smith (Peter) - The social nature of play fighting and play chasing: Mechanisms and strategies underlying cooperation and compromise"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 11
Suggest that there are important advantages in taking an evolutionary approach to the study of r/t (rough & tumble play); evidence suggests that this form of play may be universal to all human cultures and that, as such, it may have been shaped by natural selection acting on physiological and psychological mechanisms, in order to provide some specific benefits; for humans, there is some evidence …that the benefits may be related to intraspecific fighting (with hunting and predator avoidance as less likely candidates); other considerations suggest that these and other mechanisms that generate r/t have ensured that it is a cooperative activity in which participants with differing needs are willing to compromise.
"Pinker (Steven) & Bloom (Paul) - Natural language and natural selection"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 12
Argue that there is every reason to believe that language has been shaped by natural selection as it is understood within the orthodox "synthetic" or "neo-Darwinian" theory of evolution (Mayr, 1982); argue …that language is no different from other complex abilities such as echolocation or stereopsis and that the only way to explain the origin of such abilities is through the theory of natural selection… examine arguments from evolutionary biology about when it is appropriate to invoke natural selection as an explanation for the evolution of some trait; apply these tests to the case of human language, and conclude that language passes; examine the motivation for the competing nonselectionist position and suggest that they have little to recommend them; refute the arguments that have claimed that an innate specialization for grammar is incompatible with the tenets of a Darwinian account and thus that the two are incompatible.
COMMENT: Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4): 707-784
"Shepard (Roger N.) - The perceptual organization of colors: An adaptation to regularities of the terrestrial world?"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 13
Consider some characteristics of the perception and representation of colors that, although not universal in animal vision, do appear to be universal in the normal color vision of humans, prevalent in other primates, and common in a number of other quite different but also highly visual species, including the birds and the bees… questions raised are (a) whether these characteristics of color perception and representation are merely arbitrary design features of these particular species, (b) whether these characteristics arose as specific adaptations to the particular environmental niches in which these species evolved, or (c) whether they may have emerged as advanced adaptations to some properties that prevail throughout the terrestrial environment.
"Silverman (Irwin) & Eals (Marion) - Sex differences in spatial abilities: Evolutionary theory and data"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 14
(maintain) that the critical factor in selection for spatial dimorphism in humans was sexual division of labor between hunting and gathering during hominid evolution; extend the premise to propose that if these attributes evolved in males in conjunction with hunting, spatial specializations associated with foraging should have, correspondingly, evolved in females; describe a series of studies exploring these hypothesized female spatial specializations.
"Orians (Gordon H.) & Heerwagen (Judith H.) - Evolved responses to landscapes"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 15
Discuss evidence relevant to the "savanna hypothesis"--the hypothesis that we have evolved preferences for habitats with features characteristic of a high-quality tropical African savanna, the environment in which the human lineage is thought to have initially evolved; develop a task analysis, or computational theory, specifying what kinds of decisions our ancestors would have had to make in the course of habitat selection and what kinds of environmental cues would have been reliably associated with habitat quality during the Pleistocene… propose that habitat selection proceeds in three stages; each of these stages should be characterized by different cognitive and affective processes.
"Kaplan (Stephen) - Environmental preference in a knowledge-seeking, knowledge-using organism"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 16
Begins with an analysis of the role of information in human evolution; wayfinding is then introduced as an important activity of early humans with interesting informational properties; discussion of an extensive program of research on human environmental preference will serve as a window on the motivational inclinations that encourage the acquisition and utilization of wayfinding information.
"Nesse (Randolph N.) & Lloyd (Alan T.) - The evolution of psychodynamic mechanisms"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 17
Argue not that psychoanalytic concepts will turn out to exactly match the evolved functional subunits of the mind, but only that they offer the best available starting point; examine a variety of phenomena that are well accepted by psychoanalysts--repression, psychological defenses, intrapsychic conflict, conscience, transference, and childhood sexuality--in order to compare their characteristics to the predictions made by various hypotheses about their possible functions.
"Barkow (Jerome) - Beneath new culture is old psychology: Gossip and social stratification"
Source: Barkow, Cosmides & Tooby - The Adapted Mind, 1992, Chapter 18
The concepts of vertical integration and evolutionary psychology …suggest that there is little human that is really "evolutionarily unanticipated"; the two "biologically unanticipated" social phenomena this chapter deals with are (a) gossip, soap operas, and "celebrities"; and (b) social stratification; I have deliberately chosen disparate examples of evolutionary novelty in order to illustrate how the evolving field of evolutionary psychology permits powerful, vertically integrated explanations of major sociocultural phenomena.
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