<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>A Survey of Metaphysics (Lowe (E.J.)) - Theo Todman's Book Collection (Book-Paper Abstracts)</title> <link href="../../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../../TT_ICO.png" /> </head> <a name="Top"></a> <BODY> <div id="header"> <HR><H1>Theo Todman's Book Collection (Book-Paper Abstracts)</H1></div> <hr><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950><tr><td colspan =2><A HREF = "../BookSummary_1313.htm">A Survey of Metaphysics</A></td></tr><tr><td colspan =2><A HREF = "../../../Authors/L/Author_Lowe (E.J.).htm">Lowe (E.J.)</a></td></tr><tr><td colspan =2>This Page provides (where held) the <b>Abstract</b> of the above <b>Book</b> and those of all the <b>Papers</b> contained in it.</td></tr><tr><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td><td><A HREF = "../BookCitings_1313.htm">Books / Papers Citing this Book</A></td></tr></tr></TABLE></CENTER><hr> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>BOOK ABSTRACT: </B><BR><BR><U>Amazon Product Description</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li><em>A Survey of Metaphysics</em> provides a systematic overview of modern metaphysics, covering all of the most important topics likely to be encountered on a metaphysics course. </li><li>The conception of metaphysics underlying the book is the fairly traditional and widely-shared one that metaphysics deals with the deepest questions that can be raised concerning the fundamental structure of reality as a whole. </li><li>The book is divided into six main parts, each relatively self-contained, focusing in turn on the following major themes: identity and change, necessity and essence, <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_39.htm">causation</A><SUP>1</SUP>, agency and events, space and time, and <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1008.htm">universals</A><SUP>2</SUP> and particulars. </li><li>In an introductory chapter, the conception of metaphysics underlying the book is explained and defended against the many and varied opponents of metaphysics those students are likely to encounter. </li><li>While the book makes reference when necessary to the history of metaphysics, its emphasis is on contemporary views and issues. The author's approach is not narrowly partisan, but avoids bland neutrality in matters of controversy. </li></ol></FONT><BR><U>Author s Preface</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>As its title indicates, the scope of this book is broad, my intention being that it should be capable of serving as a core text for students of modern metaphysics, covering all of the most important topics that they are likely to encounter in a typical metaphysics course. It is aimed primarily at intermediate and advanced undergraduate students of philosophy, that is, at students who have already been introduced to some basic metaphysical concepts and doctrines and who have acquired some familiarity with the techniques of philosophical analysis and argumentation. At the same time, I hope that the book will be reasonably accessible to a wider range of readers with philosophical interests, including those with backgrounds in other disciplines, who want a general overview of modern metaphysics. Although the book aims to provide a systematic treatment of all the main areas of modern metaphysics, most of the chapters are relatively self-contained, so that it should be possible for teachers of the subject to select those chapters which best meet the requirements of their courses. </li><li>It must be acknowledged that no two teachers of metaphysics are likely to agree as to what exactly should be included in a course on the subject and that such disagreements can sometimes reflect different conceptions of what metaphysics is or ought to be. The conception of metaphysics that informs <em>A Survey of Metaphysics</em> is, however, a fairly traditional and still very widely shared one  namely, that metaphysics deals with the most profound questions that can be raised concerning the fundamental structure of reality. According to this conception, metaphysics goes deeper than any merely empirical science, even physics, because it provides the very framework within which such sciences are conceived and related to one another. A core text in metaphysics written from this point of view must aim, first and foremost, to elucidate certain universally applicable concepts  for example, those of <em>identity</em>, <em>necessity</em>, <em><a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_39.htm">causation</A><SUP>3</SUP></em>, <em>space</em>, and <em>time</em>  and then go on to examine some important doctrines which involve these concepts, such as the thesis that truths of identity are necessary and the claim that temporally backward <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_39.htm">causation</A><SUP>4</SUP> is impossible. In addition, it must endeavour to provide a systematic account of the ways in which entities belonging to different ontological categories  for example, <em>things</em>, <em>events</em>, and <em>properties</em>  are interrelated. These, accordingly, are the main objectives of <em>A Survey of Metaphysics</em>. A subsidiary objective is to explain and defend the conception of metaphysics which informs the book: for students need to be aware of the many and varied opponents of metaphysics and how they may be countered. </li><li>I should emphasize that my aim in this book is to provide a survey of major themes and problems in modern metaphysics, <em>not</em> a comprehensive survey and critique of the views of major contemporary metaphysicians, much less a systematic history of the subject. Consequently, I tend not to engage in direct debate with the published work of other philosophers, past or present  although I do refer to it very frequently and have included an extensive bibliography of mostly recent publications. Such direct engagement would have made the book considerably longer and more complex than it already is and, I think, less useful to its intended audience, who need to understand the issues before engaging in current debate or historical investigation for themselves. It should also be stressed, however, that the book is by no means narrowly partisan, in the sense of promoting my own opinions on particular issues whilst excluding mention of others. At the same time, I try to avoid bland neutrality in matters of controversy. </FONT></li><li> & [& snip, Acknowledgements & ] </li></ol><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><B>BOOK COMMENT: </B><BR><BR>Oxford University Press, 2002. Nice paperback copy.</P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3471.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Introduction: The Nature of Metaphysics</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 1<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Sections</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>What is metaphysics?  1</li><li>The threat of relativism  4</li><li>The objection from naturalized epistemology  5</li><li>Kant and the possibility of metaphysics  7</li><li>Metaphysics and empirical knowledge  9</li><li>Possibility, concepts, and semantics  11</li><li>Ontology and ontological categories  13</li><li>A short outline of this book  16 </li></ol> </FONT></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3472.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Identity Over Time and Change Of Composition</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 2<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P3472_1">Abstract</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P3472_1"></A></U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Chapters 2, 3, and 4 concern problems of identity, persistence, and change. Some of these problems involve cases of fission and fusion, in which one thing 'becomes two' or two 'become one'  as in the notorious puzzle of the <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">ship of Theseus</A><SUP>2</SUP>. </li><li>In Chapter 2, I look at such cases with a view to determining whether, and if so how, a composite thing can retain its identity over time while undergoing a change of its component parts. I also raise the question of whether identity could be vague, or a matter of degree. </li></ol> </FONT><BR><U>Sections</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Numerical and qualitative identity  23</li><li>Composite objects and change of parts  24</li><li>The puzzle of the <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">ship of Theseus</A><SUP>3</SUP>  25</li><li>Two radical solutions to the puzzle  28</li><li>A better solution?  30</li><li><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_78.htm">Intermittent existence</A><SUP>4</SUP>  33</li><li>Fission and fusion  35</li><li>Is vague identity possible?  36</li><li>The paradox of the thousand and one cats  37</li></ol> </FONT></P><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U> ("<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3472.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Identity Over Time and Change Of Composition</A>")</B><a name="On-Page_Link_P3472_1"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P3472_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: Taken from "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3471.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Introduction: The Nature of Metaphysics</A>". <BR><BR> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3473.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Qualitative Change and the Doctrine Of Temporal Parts</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 3<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P3473_1">Abstract</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P3473_1"></A></U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>In Chapter 3, I turn to the question of whether, and if so how, a thing can retain its identity over time while undergoing a change of its intrinsic qualities  the so-called problem of intrinsic change. </li><li>Here I explain and evaluate the doctrine of temporal parts, which offers one solution to this problem. </li></ol> </FONT><BR><U>Sections</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_81.htm">Leibniz's Law</A><SUP>2</SUP> and the problem of qualitative change  41</li><li>Presentism  42</li><li>Three temporal realist solutions to the problem  43</li><li>A clarification of the adverbial solution  47</li><li>Perdurance versus endurance  49</li><li>The notion of temporal parts  50</li><li>A problem for perdurance theories  54</li><li>Temporal parts as theoretical entities  55</li></ol> </FONT></P><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U> ("<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3473.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Qualitative Change and the Doctrine Of Temporal Parts</A>")</B><a name="On-Page_Link_P3473_1"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P3473_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: Taken from "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3471.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Introduction: The Nature of Metaphysics</A>". <BR><BR> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3474.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Substantial Change and Spatiotemporal Coincidence</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 4<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P3474_1">Abstract</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P3474_1"></A></U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>In Chapter 4, I look at the question of whether our concept of identity should be a relative or an absolute one, in the course of discussing how we can best conceptualize cases of so-called substantial change  for example, the case of a statue being formed from a lump of bronze. </li><li>Should we allow that two different things, such as the statue and its constituent bronze, can exist in exactly the same place at the same time? How indeed, if at all, does the relation of constitution differ from the relation of identity?</li></ol> </FONT><BR><U>Sections</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Beginning and ceasing to exist  59</li><li>Can there be coinciding objects?  61</li><li>Relative versus absolute identity  62</li><li>Temporal parts and coinciding objects  65</li><li>Some radical solutions to the problem of coincidence  66</li><li>In defence of coinciding objects  68</li><li>Identity and constitution  73</li><li>The problem of <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1169.htm">Tibbles</A><SUP>2</SUP> and Tib  74 </li></ol> </FONT></P><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U> ("<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3474.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Substantial Change and Spatiotemporal Coincidence</A>")</B><a name="On-Page_Link_P3474_1"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P3474_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: Taken from "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3471.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Introduction: The Nature of Metaphysics</A>". <BR><BR> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3475.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Necessity and Identity</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 5<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P3475_1">Abstract</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P3475_1"></A></U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Chapters 5 to 7 concern the metaphysics of <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>2</SUP>, that is, metaphysical issues to do with possibility and necessity. </li><li>In Chapter 5, after considering some analogies between time and <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modality</A><SUP>3</SUP>, I look at a well-known attempt to prove that true identity statements are necessarily true and raise some possible objections to this alleged proof. I also examine some of its supposed metaphysical implications, in particular its bearing upon the mind-body problem. </li></ol> </FONT><BR><U>Sections</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Two kinds of possibility  79</li><li>Possibility as a dimension of variation  80</li><li>Possible worlds  81</li><li>Necessary truths and necessary beings  82</li><li>An argument for the necessity of identity  84</li><li>Some objections to the argument  86</li><li>Rigid designators  89</li><li>Transworld identity  90</li><li>Could two objects have been one?  91</li><li>The necessity of identity and the mind-body problem  92</li></ol> </FONT></P><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U> ("<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3475.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Necessity and Identity</A>")</B><a name="On-Page_Link_P3475_1"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P3475_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: Taken from "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3471.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Introduction: The Nature of Metaphysics</A>". <BR><BR> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3476.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Essentialism</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 6<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P3476_1">Abstract</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P3476_1"></A></U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>In Chapter 6, I introduce the distinction between essential and accidental properties and raise the question of whether this distinction is founded in convention or has a more objective basis. </li><li>I also examine two important essentialist theses concerning the necessity of origin and the necessity of constitution. </li><li>In this connection, I describe certain <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>2</SUP> paradoxes and the threats they pose for essentialism. </li></ol> </FONT><BR><U>Sections</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Essential and accidental properties  96</li><li>Essential properties and the necessity of identity  99</li><li>Essential properties and the problem of transworld identity  100</li><li>Individual essences and haecceities  101</li><li>The necessity of origin  103</li><li>A four-worlds argument for the necessity of origin  104</li><li>The necessity of constitution  106</li><li>A temporal comparison and accessibility relations  109</li><li>A brief stock-taking  112</li><li>Essence and conventionalism  113 </li></ol> </FONT></P><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U> ("<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3476.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Essentialism</A>")</B><a name="On-Page_Link_P3476_1"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P3476_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: Taken from "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3471.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Introduction: The Nature of Metaphysics</A>". <BR><BR> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3477.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Possible Worlds</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 7<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P3477_1">Abstract</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P3477_1"></A></U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>In Chapter 7, I discuss the ways in which so-called possible worlds have been invoked to interpret <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</A><SUP>2</SUP> statements and raise some questions concerning the ontological status of possible worlds and their inhabitants. </li><li>I also discuss the so-called problem of transworld identity and examine some arguments for and against the doctrine of actualism, that is, the view that only actual entities, not merely possible ones, exist. </li></ol> </FONT><BR><U>Sections</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>The language of possible worlds  115</li><li><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">Modal logics</A><SUP>3</SUP> and their interpretation  116</li><li>Accessibility relations and essentialist theses  119</li><li>How should we understand talk of possible worlds?  120</li><li>A deflationary view  121</li><li>Transworld identity again  123</li><li>Another deflationary view  124</li><li><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">Modal</A><SUP>4</SUP> fictionalism  126</li><li>Realist theories of possible worlds  128</li><li>Robust realism and the indexical conception of actuality  129</li><li>Moderate realism and actualism versus possibilism  131 </li></ol> </FONT></P><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U> ("<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3477.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Possible Worlds</A>")</B><a name="On-Page_Link_P3477_1"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P3477_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: Taken from "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3471.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Introduction: The Nature of Metaphysics</A>". <BR><BR> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3478.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Counterfactual Conditionals</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 8<BR></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3479.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Causes and Conditions</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 9<BR></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3490.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Counterfactuals and Event Causation</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 10<BR></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3480.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Event Causation and Agent Causation</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 11<BR></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3481.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Actions and Events</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 12<BR></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3482.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Events, Things, and Space-Time</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 13<BR></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3483.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Absolutism Versus Relativism</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 14<BR></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3484.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Incongruent Counterparts and the Nature of Space</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 15<BR></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3485.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - The Paradoxes Of Motion and the Possibility of Change</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 16<BR></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3486.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Tense and the Reality of Time</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 17<BR></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3487.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Causation and the Direction of Time</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 18<BR></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3488.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Realism Versus Nominalism</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 19<BR></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_03/PaperSummary_3489.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - The Abstract and the Concrete</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Lowe - A Survey of Metaphysics, Chapter 20<BR></P> <a name="ColourConventions"></a><hr><br><B><U>Text Colour Conventions</U> (see <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</B><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> </center> <BR><HR><BR><center> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-03T00:01" pubdate>03/08/2018 00:01:13</time> <br><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A> </TD></TR><TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>