Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness
Baars (Bernard), Banks (William) & Newman (James)
This Page provides (where held) the Abstract of the above Book and those of all the Papers contained in it.
Colour-ConventionsDisclaimerNotes Citing this Book

BOOK ABSTRACT:

MIT Press

  1. Consciousness is at the very core of the human condition. Yet only in recent decades has it become a major focus in the brain and behavioral sciences. Scientists now know that consciousness involves many levels of brain functioning, from brainstem to cortex. The almost seventy articles in this book reflect the breadth and depth of this burgeoning field. The many topics covered include consciousness in vision and inner speech, immediate memory and attention, waking, dreaming, coma, the effects of brain damage, fringe consciousness, hypnosis, and dissociation. Underlying all the selections are the questions, What difference does consciousness make? What are its properties? What role does it play in the nervous system? How do conscious brain functions differ from unconscious ones? The focus of the book is on scientific evidence and theory. The editors have also chosen introductory articles by leading scientists to allow a wide variety of new readers to gain insight into the field.
  2. Bernard J. Baars is Senior Fellow in Theoretical Neurobiology at The Neurosciences Institute, San Diego. William P. Banks is Professor of Psychology at Pomona College and editor-in-chief of the journal Consciousness and Cognition. The late James B. Newman was a member of the Department of Psychology at the Colorado Neurological Institute.
Contents
  1. Introduction: Treating Consciousness as a Variable: The Fading Taboo

    I. OVERVIEW
  2. Consciousness: Respectable, Useful, and Probably Necessary
  3. Consciousness and Neuroscience

    II. CONSCIOUSNESS IN VISION
  4. Feature Binding, Attention, and Object Perception
  5. Effects of Sleep1 and Arousal on the Processing of Visual Information in the Cat
  6. The Role of Temporal Cortical Areas in Perceptual Organization
  7. Investigating Neural Correlates of Conscious Perception by Frequency-Tagged Neuromagnetic Responses
  8. Temporal Binding, Binocular Rivalry, and Consciousness
  9. Disconnected Awareness for Detecting, Processing, and Remembering in Neurological Patients
  10. Blindsight in Monkeys
  11. Hemisphere Deconnection and Unity in Conscious Awareness
  12. Separate Visual Pathways for Perception and Action
  13. Consciousness and Isomorphism: Can the Color Spectrum Really Be Inverted?

    III. ATTENTION: SELECTING ONE CONSCIOUS STREAM AMONG MANY
  14. Strategies and Models of Selective Attention
  15. Inattentional Blindness versus Inattentional Amnesia for Fixated but Ignored Words
  16. Aspects of a Theory of Comprehension, Memory, and Attention
  17. To See or Not to See: The Need for Attention to Perceive Changes in Scenes
  18. Function of the Thalamic Reticular Complex: The Searchlight Hypothesis
  19. Selective Attention Gates Visual Processing in the Extrastriate Cortex
  20. Attention: The Mechanisms of Consciousness
  21. Attention, Awareness, and the Triangular Circuit

    IV. IMMEDIATE MEMORY: THE FLEETING CONSCIOUS PRESENT
  22. The Information Available in Brief Visual Presentations
  23. The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information
  24. The Control of Short-Term Memory
  25. Verbal and Visual Subsystems of Working Memory
  26. The Prefrontal Landscape: Implications of Functional Architecture for Understanding Human Mentation and the Central Executive
  27. Storage and Executive Processes in the Frontal Lobes
  28. Consciousness and Cognition May Be Mediated by Multiple Independent Coherent Ensembles

    V. INTERNAL SOURCES: VISUAL IMAGES, AND INNER SPEECH
  29. Aspects of a Cognitive Neuroscience of Mental Imagery
  30. The Neural Basis of Mental Imagery
  31. Experimental Studies of Ongoing Conscious Experience
  32. Verbal Reports on Thinking

    VI. BELOW THE THRESHOLD OF SENSORY CONSCIOUSNESS
  33. Distinguishing Conscious from Unconscious Perceptual Processes
  34. The Psychological Unconscious: A Necessary Assumption for All Psychological Theory?
  35. Brain Stimulation in the Study of Neuronal Functions for Conscious Sensory Experiences

    VII. CONSCIOUSNESS AND MEMORY
  36. Memory and Consciousness
  37. Conscious Recollection and the Human Hippocampal Formation: Evidence from Positron Emission Tomography
  38. Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge
  39. Attention, Automatism, and Consciousness
  40. When Practice Makes Imperfect: Debilitating Effects of Overlearning
  41. The Neural Correlates of Consciousness: An Analysis of Cognitive Skill Learning
  42. Availability: A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability
  43. Experiences of Remembering, Knowing, and Guessing
  44. Measuring Recollection: Strategic versus Automatic Influences of Associative Context

    VIII. UNCONSCIOUS AND "FRINGE" PROCESSES
  45. The Conscious "Fringe": Bringing William James Up to Date
  46. The Fundamental Role of Context: Unconscious Shaping of Conscious Information
  47. The Cognitive Unconscious
  48. Pain and Dissociation in the Cold Pressor Test: A Study of Hypnotic Analgesia with "Hidden Reports" through Automatic Key Pressing and Automatic Talking
  49. Anosognosia in Parietal Lobe Syndrome
  50. Implications for Psychiatry of Left and Right Cerebral Specialization: A Neurophysiological Context for Unconscious Processes

    IX. CONSCIOUSNESS AS A STATE: WAKING, DEEP SLEEP2, COMA, ANESTHESIA, AND DREAMING
  51. Brain Stem Reticular Formation and Activation of the EEG
  52. Anatomical and Physiological Substrates of Arousal
  53. On the Neurophysiology of Consciousness: An Overview
  54. An Information Processing Theory of Anaesthesia
  55. Toward a Unified Theory of Narcosis: Brain Imaging Evidence for a Thalamocortical Switch as the Neurophysiologic Basis of Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness
  56. The Relation of Eye Movements during Sleep3 to Dream Activity: An Objective Method for the Study of Dreaming
  57. The Brain as a Dream State Generator: An Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis of the Dream Process
  58. Lucid Dreaming Verified by Volitional Communication during REM Sleep4
  59. Commentary: Of Dreaming and Wakefulness

    X. THEORY
  60. Consciousness and Complexity
  61. Brain Learning, Attention, and Consciousness
  62. A Global Competitive Network for Attention
  63. Time-Locked Multiregional Retroactivation: A Systems-Level Proposal for the Neural Substrates of Recall and Recognition
  64. Visual Feature Integration and the Temporal Correlation Hypothesis
  65. Metaphors of Consciousness and Attention in the Brain
  66. How Does a Serial, Integrated, and Very Limited Stream of Consciousness Emerge from a Nervous System That Is Mostly Unconscious, Distributed, Parallel, and of Enormous Capacity?
  67. A Neural Global Workspace Model for Conscious Attention
  68. A Software Agent Model of Consciousness



"Alkire (M.T.), Haier (R.J.) & Fallon (J.H.) - Toward a Unified Theory of Narcosis: Brain Imaging Evidence for a Thalamocortical Switch as the Neurophysiological Basis of Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Atkinson (Richard C.) & Shiffrin (Richard M.) - The Control of Short-Term Memory"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard) - How Does a Serial, Integrated, and Very Limited Stream of Consciousness Emerge From a Nervous System That Is Mostly Unconscious, Distributed, Parallel, and of Enormous Capacity?"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard) - Introduction: Treating Consciousness as a Variable: The Fading Taboo"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness


Metapsychology On-line Review
    In his comprehensive introduction (which in itself would serve as a useful set text for a wider audience) Baars argues for consciousness to be treated as a variable rather than as an absolute state. By this he means that consciousness can be measured as being more or less present in relation to other states, such as between wakefulness and sleep1, alertness and coma, new and habituated events, and so on. In this way, and in opposition to those who deny consciousness can be scientifically (that is, experimentally) studied at all, Baars and his colleagues propose that hard empirical data can be reliably gathered about the processes of consciousness, and thus contribute to the building of a coherent scientific theory of this most enigmatic of human attributes. The favored methodological approach seeks to correlate internal, subjective experiences with objective experimental techniques so that, as Baars says, "in modern science we are practicing a kind of verifiable phenomenology". (p. 8) Philosophical analyses continue to dominate the study of consciousness. Recent resurgence of interest in neuroscience study of consciousness and the interest shown by the other sciences reflect the contemporary concerns. Science and Consciousness Review, an upcoming forum highlighting these concerns would vouch for this trend.
    … G.C.Gupta, PhD.
Section Headings
  • Evidence
  • It Has Been Historically Difficult to Think of Consciousness as a Variable
  • Consciousness as a Construct Indexed by Behavioral Report
  • Operational Definitions
    1. can be reported and acted upon,
    2. with verifiable accuracy,
    3. under optimal reporting conditions,
    4. and which are reported as conscious.
  • Unconscious Events
    1. knowledge of its presence can be verified, even if
    2. that knowledge is not claimed to be conscious;
    3. and it cannot be voluntarily reported, acted on, or avoided;
    4. even under optimal reporting conditions.
  • Fringe Conscious Events
    1. is reported with verifiable accuracy and high confidence,
    2. and can be voluntarily acted on,
    3. but is not reported to have differentiated conscious contents,
    4. even under optimal reporting conditions.
  • But Is It Really Consciousness? The Question of Subjectivity
  • Limits of Consciousness Reports
  • Summary: Contrary to past beliefs, many aspects of consciousness are not untestable at all, as shown by productive research traditions on topics like attention, perception, psychophysics, problem-solving, thought monitoring, imagery, dream research, and so on. All of these efforts meet the most widely used operational criterion of conscious experience—namely, verifiable report of some event described as conscious by an observer. The key, I would suggest, is to study consciousness as a variable, by seeing whether it is a difference that makes a difference. But do the results tell us about real consciousness? Could it be just a behavioral response, without subjectivity? In fact, most objective reports correspond well to our own experience. Investigations into conscious processes like sensation continue to cumulate well after two centuries, which suggests that they have not yet run into some insurmountable barrier. I suggest that consciousness should be treated like any other fundamental scientific question.
  • References

Table 1.1: Some widely studied polarities between matched conscious and unconscious phenomena

Conscious

Unconscious

1. Explicit cognitionImplicit cognition
2. Immediate memoryLonger term memory
3. Novel, informative, and significant eventsRoutine, predictable, and nonsignificant events
4. Attended informationUnattended information
5. Focal contentsFringe contents (e.g., familiarity)
6. Declarative memory (facts, etc.) Procedural memory (skills, etc.)
7. Supraliminal stimulationSubliminal stimulation
8. Effortful tasksSpontaneous/automatic tasks
9. Remembering (recall) Knowing (recognition)
10. Available memoriesUnavailable memories
11. Strategic controlAutomatic control
12. Grammatical stringsImplicit underlying grammars
13. Intact reticular formation and bilateral intralaminar thalamic nucleiLesioned reticular formation, or bilateral intralaminar nuclei
14. Rehearsed items in Working MemoryUnrehearsed items
15. Wakefulness and dreams (cortical arousal) Deep sleep2, coma, sedation (cortical slow waves)
16. Explicit inferencesAutomatic inferences
17. Episodic memory (autobiographical) Semantic memory (conceptual knowledge)
18. Autonoetic memoryNoetic memory
19. Intentional learningIncidental learning
20. Normal visionBlindsight (cortical blindness)


COMMENT: Printout filed in "Various - Papers on Philosophy of Mind Boxes: Vol 1 (Coursework & A-C)".



"Baars (Bernard) - Metaphors of Consciousness and Attention in the Brain"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard) - The Fundamental Role of Context: Unconscious Shaping of Conscious Information"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard), Banks (William) & Newman (James) - Attention: Selecting One Conscious Stream Among Many"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard), Banks (William) & Newman (James) - Below the Threshold of Sensory Conscousness"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard), Banks (William) & Newman (James) - Consciousness and Memory"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard), Banks (William) & Newman (James) - Consciousness as a State: Sleep, Coma, Anesthesia, and Dreaming"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard), Banks (William) & Newman (James) - Consciousness in Vision"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard), Banks (William) & Newman (James) - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness: Overview"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard), Banks (William) & Newman (James) - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness: Preface"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard), Banks (William) & Newman (James) - Immediate Memory: The Fleeting Conscious Present"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard), Banks (William) & Newman (James) - Internal Source: Visual Images and Inner Speech"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard), Banks (William) & Newman (James) - Theory"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baars (Bernard), Banks (William) & Newman (James) - Unconscious and 'Fringe' Processes"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Baddeley (Alan D.) - Verbal and Visual Subsystems of Working Memory"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Bogen (Joseph E.) - On the Neurophysiology of Consciousness: An Overview"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Cheesman (Jim) & Merikle (Philip M.) - Distinguishing Conscious from Unconscious Perceptual Processes"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Cowey (Alan) & Stoerig (Petra) - Blindsight In Monkeys"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Crick (Francis) - Function of the Thalamic Reticular Complex: The Searchlight Hypothesis"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Crick (Francis) & Koch (Cristof) - Consciousness and Neuroscience"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Damasio (Antonio) - Time-Locked Multiregional Retroactivation: A Systems-Level Proposal for the Neural Substrates of Recall and Recognition"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Dement (William) & Kleitman (Nathaniel) - The Relationship of Eye Movements During Sleep to Dream Activity: An Objective Method for the Study of Dreaming"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Engel (Andreas K.), Fries (Pascal), Roelfsema (Pieter R.), Konig (Peter), Brecht (Michael) & Singer (Wolf) - Temporal Binding, Binocular Rivalry, and Consciousness"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Ericsson (K. Anders) & Simon (Herbert A.) - Verbal Reports on Thinking"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Farah (Martha J.) - The Neural Basis of Mental Imagery"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Flohr (H.) - An Information Processing Theory of Anaesthesia"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Franklin (Stan) & Graesser (Art) - A Software Agent Model of Consciousness"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness


Authors’ Abstract
  1. Baars (1988, 1997) has proposed a psychological theory of consciousness, called global workspace theory.
  2. The present study describes a software agent implementation of that theory, called "Conscious" Mattie (CMattie). CMattie operates in a clerical domain from within a UNIX operating system, sending messages and interpreting messages in natural language that organize seminars at a university. CMattie fleshes out global workspace theory with a detailed computational model that integrates contemporary architectures in cognitive science and artificial intelligence.
  3. Baars (1997) lists the psychological "facts that any complete theory of consciousness must explain" in his appendix to In the Theater of Consciousness; global workspace theory was designed to explain these "facts."
  4. The present article discusses how the design of CMattie accounts for these facts and thereby the extent to which it implements global workspace theory.



"Galin (David) - Implications for Psychiatry of Left and Right Cerebral Specialization: A Neurophysiological Context for Unconscious Processes"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Gardiner (John M.) , Ramponi (Cristina) & Richardson-Klavehn (Alan) - Experiences of Remembering, Knowing, and Guessing"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Goldman-Rakic (Patricia S.) - The Prefrontal Landscape: Implications of Functional Architecture for Understanding Human Mentation and the Central Executive"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Goodale (Melvyn Alan) & Milner (David) - Separate Visual Pathways For Perception and Action"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Grossberg (Stephen) - Brain Learning, Attention, and Consciousness"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Hilgard (Ernest R.), Morgan (Arlene H.) & Macdonald (Hugh) - Pain and Disscociation in the Cold Pressor Test: A Study of Hypnotic Analgesia with 'Hidden Reports' through Automatic Key Pressing and Automatic Talking"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Hobson (J. Allan) & McCarley (Robert W.) - The Brain as a Dream State Generator: An Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis of the Dream Process"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Jacoby (Larry L.) - Measuring Recollection: Strategic versus Automatic Influences of Associative Context"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"John (E. Roy), Easton (Paul) & Isenhart (Robert) - Consciousness and Cognition May Be Mediated by Multiple Independent Coherent Ensembles"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Kihlstrom (John F.) - The Cognitive Unconscious"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Kosslyn (Stephen) - Aspects of a Cognitive Neuroscience of Mental Imagery"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"LaBerge (David) - Attention, Awareness, and the Triangular Circuit"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"LaBerge (David), Nagel (Lynn), Dement (William) & Zarcone (Vincent) - Lucid Dreaming Verified by Volitional Communication During REM Sleep"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Langer (Ellen J.) & Imber (Lois G.) - When Practice Makes Imperfect: Debilitating Effects of Overlearning"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Libet (B.) - Brain Stimulation in the Study of Neuronal Functions for Conscious Sensory Experiences"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Livingstone (Margaret S.) & Hubel (David H.) - Effects of Sleep and Arousal on the Processing of Visual Information in the Cat"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Llinas (R.R.) & Pare (D.) - Commentary: Of Dreaming and Wakefulness"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"MacKay (Donald) - Aspects of a Theory of Comprehension, Memory, and Attention"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Mandler (George) - Consciousness: Respectable, Useful, and Probably Necessary"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Mangan (Bruce) - The Conscious 'Fringe': Bringing William James Up to Date"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Miller (Geoge A.) - The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Moran (Jeffrey) & Desimone (Robert) - Selective Attention Gates Visual Processing in the Extrastriate Cortex"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Moruzzi (G.) & Magoun (H.W.) - Brain Stem Reticular Formation and Activation of the EEG"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Newman (James), Baars (Bernard) & Cho (Sung-Bae) - A Neural Global Workspace Model for Conscious Attention"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Palmer (Stephen E.) - Consciousness and Isomorphism: Can the Color Spectrum Really Be Inverted?"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Posner (Michael I.) - Attention: The Mechanisms of Consciousness"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Raichle (Marcus E.) - The Neural Correlates of Consciousness: An Analysis of Cognitive Skill Learning"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Ramachandran (V.S.) - Anosognosia in Parietal Lobe Syndrome"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Reber (Arthur S.) - Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Rees (Geraint), Russell (Charlotte), Frith (Christopher D.) & Driver (Jon) - Inattentional Blindness versus Inattentional Amnesia for Fixated but Ignored Words"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Rensink (Ronald A.), O'Regan (J. Kevin) & Clark (James J.) - To See or Not to See: The Need for Attention to Perceive Changes in Scenes"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Schacter (Daniel L.), Alpert (Nathaniel M.), Savage (Cary R.), Rauch (Scott L.) & Albert (Marilyn S.) - Conscious Recollection and the Human Hippocampal Formation: Evidence from Positron Emission Tomography"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Scheibel (Arnold B.) - Anatomical and Physiological Substrates of Arousal"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Sheinberg (D.L.) & Logothetis (N.K.) - The Role of Temporal Cortical Areas in Perceptual Organization"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Shevrin (Howard) & Dickman (Scott) - The Psychological Unconscious: A Necessary Assumption for All Psychological Theory?"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Shriffrin (Richard M.) - Attention, Automatism, and Consciousness"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Singer (Jerome) - Experimental Studies of Ongoing Conscious Experience"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Singer (Wolf) & Gray (Charles M.) - Visual Feature Integration and the Temporal Correlation Hypothesis"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Smith (Edward E.) & Jonides (John) - Storage and Executive Processes in the Frontal Lobes"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Sperling (George) - The Information Available in Brief Visual Presentations"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Sperry (Roger W.) - Hemisphere Deconnection and the Unity in Conscious Awareness"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness


Author’s Introduction
  1. The following article is a result of studies my Colleagues and I have been conducting with some neurosurgical patients of Philip J. Vogel of Los Angeles. These patients were all advanced epileptics in whom an extensive midline section of the cerebral commissures1 had been carried out in an effort to contain severe epileptic convulsions not controlled by medication. In all these people the surgical sections included division of the corpus collosum in its entirety, plus division also of the smaller anterior and hippocampal commissures2, plus in some instances the massa intermedia. So far as I know, this is the most radical disconnection of the cerebral hemispheres attempted thus far in human surgery. The full array of sections was carried out in a single operation.
  2. No major collapse of mentality or personality was anticipated as a result of this extreme surgery: earlier clinical observations on surgical section of the corpus callosum in man, as well as the results from dozens of monkeys on which I had carried out this exact same surgery, suggested that the functional deficits might very likely be less damaging than some of the more common forms of cerebral surgery, such as frontal lobotomy, or even some of the unilateral lobotomies performed more routinely for epilepsy.
  3. Although the alleviation of the epilepsy has not held up 100% throughout the series (two patients are still having seizures, although their convulsions are much reduced in severity and frequency and tend to be confined to one side), the results on the whole continue to be predominantly beneficial, and the overall outlook at this time remains promising for selected severe cases.
  4. Our own work has been confined entirely to an examination of the functional outcome, that is, the behavioral, neurological, and psychological effects of this surgical disruption of all direct cross-talk between the hemispheres. Initially we were concerned as to whether we would be able to find in these patients any of the numerous symptoms of hemisphere deconnection that had been demonstrated in the so-called split-brain animal studies of the 1950s …


COMMENT: Also in "Kolak (Daniel) & Martin (Raymond), Eds. - Self and Identity: Contemporary Philosophical Issues".



"Taylor (J.G.) & Alavi (F.N.) - A Global Competitive Network for Attention"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Tononi (Guilio) & Edelman (Gerald M.) - Consciousness and Complexity"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Tononi (Guilio), Srinivasan (Ramesh), Russell (D. Patrick) & Edelman (Gerald M.) - Investigating Neural Correlates of Conscious Perception by Frequency-Tagged Neuromagnetic Responses"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Treisman (Anne) - Feature Binding, Attention, and Object Perception"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Treisman (Anne) - Strategies and Models of Selective Attention"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Tulving (Endel) - Memory and Consciousness"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Tversky (Amos) & Kahneman (Daniel) - Availability: A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



"Weiskrantz (Larry) - Disconnected Awareness for Detecting, Processing, and Remembering in Neurological Patients"

Source: Baars, Banks & Newman - Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness



Text Colour Conventions (see disclaimer)
  1. Blue: Text by me; © Theo Todman, 2018
  2. Mauve: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); © the author(s)



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