<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Biological Individuality - The identity and Persistence of Living Entities (Wilson (Jack)) - Theo Todman's Book Collection (Book-Paper Abstracts)</title> <link href="../../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../../TT_ICO.png" /> </head> <a name="Top"></a> <BODY> <div id="header"> <HR><H1>Theo Todman's Book Collection (Book-Paper Abstracts)</H1></div> <hr><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950><tr><td colspan =3><A HREF = "../BookSummary_1337.htm">Biological Individuality - The identity and Persistence of Living Entities</A></td></tr><tr><td colspan =3><A HREF = "../../../Authors/W/Author_Wilson (Jack).htm">Wilson (Jack)</a></td></tr><tr><td colspan =3>This Page provides (where held) the <b>Abstract</b> of the above <b>Book</b> and those of all the <b>Papers</b> contained in it.</td></tr><tr><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td><td><A HREF = "../BookCitings_1337.htm">Books / Papers Citing this Book</A></td><td><A HREF = "../BooksToNotes_1337.htm">Notes Citing this Book</A></td></tr></tr></TABLE></CENTER><hr> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>BOOK ABSTRACT: </B><BR><BR><U>Cover Blurb</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>In this book, Jack Wilson brings together two lines of research, theoretical biology and analytic metaphysics, that have dealt with the <a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>1</SUP> of living entities in virtual isolation from one another. Wilson presents a new theory of biological individuality that addresses problems that cannot be solved by either field alone. The wide range of unfamiliar and fascinating organisms that he uses to develop his view, including slime molds, parasitic barnacles, and tardigrades, enables him to escape the limitations of theories based on <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_32.htm">thought experiments</A><SUP>2</SUP> and the timeworn examples of organisms on which philosophers have traditionally relied. He presents a more fine-grained vocabulary of <a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>3</SUP> based on diverse kinds of living things. This allows him to clarify and resolve previously muddled disputes about individuality in biology and philosophy.<BR>This is a clearly written book of interest to philosophers of biology, metaphysicians, and biologists.</li><li>Jack Wilson is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Washington and Lee University.</li><li>Cambridge Studies in Philosophy and Biology</li><li>Clarifies previously muddled disputes about individuality in biology.</li><li>Brings together two lines of research, theoretical biology and traditional metaphysics, as they relate to biological individuality.</li><li>Explains a new theory about biological individuality that addresses problems that cannot be solved by either biology or metaphysics alone.</li><li>"[Jack Wilson] presents a plausible general account of the metaphysics of identity and <a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>4</SUP> and brings it to bear, with illuminating results, on empirical questions of <a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>5</SUP> in biology. In the process, he demonstrates the inadequacy of many contemporary philosophers discussions of biological ontology ... By clarifying and distinguishing between various subtly different notions of biological individuality, all of them mutually compatible, Wilson constructs an ontological framework in which substantive questions of biological <a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>6</SUP> can be perspicuously formulated." <I>E.J. Lowe</I>, University of Durham</li></ol></FONT></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_07/PaperSummary_7743.htm">Olson (Eric) - Review of Jack Wilson's 'Biological Individuality: The Identity and Persistence of Living Entities'</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Philosophical Quarterly, 2001, Vol. 51 Issue 203, p264-6<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><u>Author s Introduction</u><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>This book asks 'What is a living individual?'. Since 'living individual' is a biologist's term of art, the rest of us might wonder what this means. Since Wilson makes no attempt to say what makes something living, as opposed to non-living, he seems to be asking about what concrete particular living things there are, and about their identity and <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>1</SUP>. This is an excellent question, and one that has bothered me ever since I first read "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_49.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Material Beings</A>" (1990). </li><li>Wilson's answer is surprising: living things come in at least six different basic kinds, though he focuses on just three. <ul type="disc"><li>A <em>genetic individual</em> comes into being when a cell develops a genotype different from that of its immediate ancestors. It is made up at any time of just those cells that descend from that original cell and share its genotype, and perishes when no such cells remain. </li><li>Things compose a <em>functional individual</em> when they are 'causally integrated into a functional unit', regardless of their genetic make-up or origin. A functional individual perishes when it dies or otherwise becomes functionally disintegrated. </li><li>A <em>developmental individual</em> is anything (presumably any maximal thing) that develops from a single cell or group of undifferentiated cells, where this 'development' is understood to preclude the sort of reduction to a single cell or group of undifferentiated cells that marks the start of a new develop-mental process. (This category seems not to apply to single-celled organisms.) </li></ul>These and other kinds determine different and incompatible identity-conditions; so nothing can belong to more than one of them. </li><li>Wilson thinks that philosophers have failed to distinguish among these different kinds because they have considered only higher animals, in which the kinds mainly coincide. A horse is functionally integrated, is genetically homogeneous and develops from a single cell (though on his view the functional horse, the genetic horse and the developmental horse are numerically different). But the three kinds can come apart. Wilson claims that in most living things they do so. </li></ol></FONT><BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>COMMENT: </B>Review of "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1337.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Biological Individuality - The identity and Persistence of Living Entities</A>"</P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5138.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Beyond Horses and Oak Trees: A New Theory of Individuation for Living Entities</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Wilson, Jack - Biological Individuality: The identity and Persistence of Living Entities; 1999, Chap. 1, pp. 1-21<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s Abstract</U><ol type="1"><FONT COLOR = "800080">In this chapter I show that past philosophers have failed to explicate the conditions an entity must satisfy to be a living individual. I then explore the reasons for this failure and explain why we should limit ourselves to examples involving real organisms rather than use <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_32.htm">thought experiments</A><SUP>1</SUP>. </FONT></ol><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_8/Notes_860.htm"><BR></a> for the meaning of any abbreviations in what follows.<BR><BR><B><U>Sections</U></B><BR><BR><B>1. Introduction</B><ul type="disc"><li>Wittgenstein quote  the need for multiple kinds of examples  Wilson will reject TEs in favour of a wide range of real examples. See Section 4. </li><li>Attempts to explain (in the general case) how to individuate living things have failed for two reasons:- <ol type="1"><li>Paucity of biological examples</li><li>Being led astray by the normal cases and TEs</li></ol></li><li>This book s aims and achievements:- <ol type="1"><li>Exploration & resolution of paradoxes arising when applying traditional methods of <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>2</SUP> outside the range of the easy cases.</li><li>Presentation of a new analysis of identity and persistence. </li></ol></li><li>Counting individuals is easy for the folksy examples, but not for the oddities. </li><li>What is a biological <I>individual</I>?</li><li>What s the relation between an <I>individual</I> and a <I>particular</I>? Traditionally <I>individual</I> has had the broader usage, and Wilson will explore the usages for:-<BR>& organic organisation<BR>& genetics<BR>& development<BR>& models of natural selection</li><li>Individuative methodologies derived from the conventional range of living things fail in cases where normal modes of existence involve:-<BR>& complex <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_37.htm">metamorphoses</A><SUP>3</SUP><BR>& regeneration of lost parts<BR>& fission and fusion</li><li>Examples:-<BR>& <I>Armillaria bulbosa</I> (a fungus)   the largest individual living thing on earth <BR>& Rhizocephalans (parasitic barnacles)  several distinct developmental phases<BR>& Strawberries  are cloned plants individuals, or is the set of cloned plants an individual and the individual plants not so? </li><li>We can t use the characteristics of the higher animals to define the conditions of individuality in the general case</li><li>Indeed, we might question whether there <U>are</U> any necessary and sufficient conditions for individuality <I>simpliciter</I>. </li><li>Some questions:- <ol type="1"><li>What makes a biological entity an individual rather than a colony of individuals or a component of an individual?</li><li>Epistemologically: What criteria should we use to determine that a biological entity at a time is the same one that existed earlier? </li><li>Metaphysically: What biological or other processes cause substantial change? </li></ol></li><li>Aim of the Chapter: <ol type="1"><li>Show that past philosophers have failed to explain the conditions an entity must satisfy to be a living individual </li><li>Explore the reasons for this failure, and</li><li>Explain why we should reject TEs in favour of real examples. </li></ol> </li></ul><BR><B>2. The Meaning of 'a Life'</B><ul type="disc"><li>Philosophers have mistakenly thought it easy to individuate living things. Wilson gives the examples of Locke and Van Inwagen. </li><li><B>Locke</B>: the usual stuff from "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5555.htm">Locke (John) - Of Identity and Diversity</A>". There is no requirement for continuity of <U>matter</U>  because the exchange of matter with the environment in metabolism is constitutive of biological organisms  instead, it s the continuity of a <U>life</U> that preserves identity. Unfortunately, Locke doesn t explain how to individuate <I>lives</I>. He may think this too obvious to require explanation (for the biological individuals he considers  horses, oak trees and human beings). In these cases, and under normal circumstances, questions of persistence have easy answers. </li><li><B>Van Inwagen</B>: Believes that the only concrete particulars that exist are simples and organisms. See "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_49.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Material Beings</A>". For a composite object to exist, its parts must be connected by a special type of causal connection  the parts must constitute a <I>life</I>. Van Inwagen describes a life as an  unimaginably complex self-maintaining storm of atoms . He also describes it as a homeodynamic event, but thinks it s the job of the biologist to work out how a life differs from other events. Wilson agrees, but thinks the biologist needs some help. His main concern seems to be that Van Inwagen s account of a life doesn t distinguish individuals from their parts or from aggregates of individuals.</li><li>Locke and Van Inwagen agree in taking a life as being an intuitively clear idea to be used in elucidating more complex matters such as persistence and mereology. But this is all wrong. Even if we could provide necessary and sufficient conditions for being alive, we d still need to know whether a mass of living tissue constitutes a single living being. </li><li>Wilson diagnoses the problem for this blind-spot as a poor choice of examples, to which he now turns. </li></ul><BR><B>3. The Poverty of Examples</B><ul type="disc"><li>The familiar cases of horses and oak trees don t force us to examine our intuitions like the unusual ones that lead to paradox   Our basic assumptions about individuality become contingent facts to be explained  though even ordinary cases (says a footnote) raise awkward questions. An example is the question whether a horse was ever a <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_4">zygote</A></U><SUB>4</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_4"></A>, and if (counterfactually) the <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1174.htm">zygote</A><SUP>5</SUP> had <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1173.htm">twinned</A><SUP>6</SUP>, which of the <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1173.htm">twins</A><SUP>7</SUP> would our horse be? </li><li>Wilson has surveyed the examples in the philosophical literature since Aristotle, and found four categories:- <ol type="1"><li>Common plants and metazoan animals</li><li>People</li><li>Artefacts, and</li><li>Science fiction fantasies</li></ol></li><li>He claims that the poverty of real examples is matched by the oddity of the TEs, which include:-<BR>& grossly mutated dogs<BR>& werewolves<BR>& people who fission</li><li>Wilson leaves questions of Human identity and Personal Identity until the last Chapter ("<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5143.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Personal Identity Naturalized: Our Bodies, Our Selves</A>"). </li><li>The  normal cases share the following <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_8">characteristics</A></U><SUB>8</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_8"></A>:- <ol type="1"><li>Easily countable because clearly demarcated from their environment and other organisms of the same kind</li><li>Reproduce sexually</li><li>Develop from a single cell</li><li>Genetically homogeneous</li><li>Multicellular</li></ol></li><li>Most living things  in terms of number of species, number of organisms or biomass don t share properties 1  5. </li><li>Of the 5-kingdom <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_9">taxonomy</A></U><SUB>9</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_9"></A> of terrestrial life, only plants and animals are represented by the usual examples; and, horses and oak-trees are not typical members of their own kingdoms either. </li><li>How do we count these organisms  the matter may still not be clear even if we know all the functional and historical facts about the living thing in question. And invoking Locke s  answer of counting individual lives just replaces one difficult question by another equally difficult one. </li><li><B><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_52.htm">Artefacts</A><SUP>10</SUP></B> are not helpful analogues, as living things are not artefacts, and can change their constitutive matter in a fashion and at a rate that inanimate objects can t. </li><li>Wilson now considers four real cases that are difficult to explain using the common sense notion of an individual, namely:- <ol type="1"><li>Colonial siphonophores</li><li>Butterflies</li><li>Blackberries.</li><li>Cellular slime-molds</li></ol>See the book for the details; I ve just abstracted some key points below:- </li><li><B>Colonial siphonophores</B>: these look like jellyfish, but are in fact colonies of zooids, though co-ordination is achieved by interconnections between the individuals nervous systems. Note that the zooids have different functions within the colony but don t just  come together , but bud off from an initial <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1174.htm">zygote</A><SUP>11</SUP>, in an analogous manner to cell differentiation (it seems to me), and while remaining loosely connected. We are referred to E. O. Wilson s <I><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_12">Sociobiology</A></U><SUB>12</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_12"></A></I>. (Jack) Wilson asks whether the siphonophore colony is a single individual or is each zooid an individual? He claims that neither our common-sense <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_13">intuitions</A></U><SUB>13</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_13"></A> nor appeals to  a life help us here.</li><li><B>Butterflies</B>: it seems that a caterpillar has encapsulated within it a collection of <I>imaginal discs</I>, which are small groups of undifferentiated cells that are inactive during the larval stage. These feed on the dissolved caterpillar body inside the cocoon. Under hormonal action they differentiate into the various parts of the adult imago. While the butterfly is genetically identical to the caterpillar, Wilson is unclear whether we have one or two lives here. He doesn t give examples, but states that:- <ol type="1"><li>There are degrees of <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_37.htm">metamorphosis</A><SUP>14</SUP>, </li><li>Some organisms go through several developmental stages as radically discontinuous as that for the butterfly, and </li><li>Others have stages composed of more than one organism.</li></ol> </li><li><B>Blackberries</B>: Propagate either through seed or via underground runners, which may or may not become detached. What, therefore, is an individual plant? Other similar examples are some ferns, fungi and bamboo. </li><li><B>Cellular slime-molds</B>: a colony of amoeba-like cells that form a slug-like grex which has front and back, responds to light and moves like an organism. </li><li>Wilson doubts that there is a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for being a biological individual, but he provides this list for the paradigmatic cases:- <ol type="1"><li>Spatio-temporal continuity</li><li>Spatio-temporal boundedness</li><li>Composition of heterogeneous causally-related parts</li><li>Development from a single cell to a multicellular body</li><li>Functional impairment following damage to parts</li><li>Sexual reproduction</li><li>Genetic homogeneity</li></ol></li><li>This is a practical list, which may be no use in a philosophical or scientific context, and won t deal with paradoxical cases. Wilson will look to extend the common-sense definition, and will not ring-fence any of these conditions. His approach will be to consider real examples of those things we consider individuals and those we don t. </li><li>Some entities have only some of these properties, or have them to different degrees. Lichens are symbiotic combinations of algae and fungus, yet our folk-ontology has them as individuals. </li></ul><BR><B>4. Imaginary Examples and Conceptual Analysis</B><ul type="disc"><li><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_32.htm">TEs</A><SUP>15</SUP> are fun, but may mislead. They are often under-specified. Just what <u>are</u> the details of a centaur s biology? See "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5912.htm">Rescher (Nicholas) - Thought Experiments in Presocratic Philosophy</A>" in "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1370.htm">Horowitz (Tamara) & Massey (Gerald J.) - Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy</A>". </li><li>Wilson prefers real cases to TEs, for the following three reasons he develops further later on:- <ol type="1"><li>He s only interested in <U>this</U> <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_16">world</A></U><SUB>16</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_16"></A>, not <U>any possible</U> one. </li><li>There are lots of real problem cases, and they come with fully discoverable background conditions. </li><li>TEs depend for their effectiveness on a correspondence between intuition and reality. This connection fails where either we imagine the impossible or fail to imagine the possible. </li></ol></li><li>J. B. S. Haldane quote  The world is not only queerer than we imagine, it s queerer than we can imagine . The real world doesn t suffer from the poverty of my imagination.</li><li>Since real cases are actual, they must be possible. We can t say the same of TEs, because BG assumptions are sometimes obscured to the benefit of the particular axe that the TE s inventor has to grind. </li><li>The further we are from the ordinary, the less reliable our intuitions are. </li><li>TEs are most popular for identity, especially <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_17">PID</A></U><SUB>17</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_17"></A>. Wilson s examples:- <ol type="1"><li>The <I><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">Ship of Theseus</A><SUP>18</SUP></I> ( <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_44.htm">Click here for Note</A>).</li><li>Marjorie Price s metamorphosing dogs.</li><li><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_46.htm">Teletransportation</A><SUP>19</SUP> (whether matter-beam or blueprint). </li></ol> </li><li>Impossible TEs (says Wilson):- <ol type="1"><li>Descartes <I>Real Distinction</I> argument (<A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_936.htm">Click here for Note</A>) - can Descartes <U>really</U> imagine what he thinks he can? </li><li>"<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5851.htm">Price (Marjorie) - Identity Through Time</A>": Rover <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_37.htm">metamorphoses</A><SUP>20</SUP> over a 6-month isolation period into Clover  an amorphous mass of cells with different chromosomes  after a trip to Mars, yet Clover is still Rover. Is it, and could this really happen to a <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_21">dog</A></U><SUB>21</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_21"></A> ? </li></ol></li><li>Wilson admits that some TEs are innocent enough  those that relate to experiments that <U>could</U> be done, but are not  what "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3666.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Thought Experiments</A>" calls  merely imagined . Somewhere between these and Descartes <I>Real Distinction</I> argument is the line beyond which TEs become suspicious. </li><li>Wilson quotes "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5847.htm">Van Inwagen (Peter) - Naive Mereology, Admissible Valuations, and Other Matters</A>" to the effect that literary fantasies are inadmissible, and may result in conceptual falsehoods. <I>The Terminator</I> has nothing to say on the possibility of <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1133.htm">time travel</A><SUP>22</SUP>. Such fantasies blur the distinction between truth and  truth within the <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_23">story</A></U><SUB>23</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_23"></A> . A sketchy account can include an utter <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_24">impossibility</A></U><SUB>24</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_24"></A> as an essential detail. </li><li><B>Micro-Man versus Giant-Ant Example</B>: This TE is described and critiqued in the obvious manner, to the effect that any world in which this TE occurs would need physical laws radically different to those in <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_25">our</A></U><SUB>25</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_25"></A> world. </li><li>Wilson approves of the distrust of Parfit s TE whereby  we split like amoebae shown in "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3666.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Thought Experiments</A>" on the grounds that <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_26">everything</A></U><SUB>26</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_26"></A> would be so unimaginably different in such a world that we wouldn t know which of our background assumptions would remain constant, and so wouldn t know what to draw from the TE. </li><li>The moral is that most TEs leave the background assumptions  in particular the applicability of our <U>concepts</U>  dangerously unspecified. It may seem the same to know something is possible as against knowing it <U>not</U> to be <U>im</U>possible, but it isn t the same at all.</li><li>Our <B><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_27">concepts</A></U><SUB>27</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_27"></A></B> are not usually claimed to apply in every possible world, so stressing them in this way isn t <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_28">relevant</A></U><SUB>28</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_28"></A> if they operate well enough in the contexts for which they were introduced. If the claim is the modest one that the concept is adequate for <U>our</U> world, then showing that it doesn t apply in every possible world isn t relevant. </li><li>Wilson quotes "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5929.htm">Gale (Richard) - On Some Pernicious Thought-Experiments</A>" to the effect that in the possible world of the TE, our language games and forms of life would have no <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_29">application</A></U><SUB>29</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_29"></A> as  the empirical presuppositions for doing so are not realised . Toots that are fine for one job may be no use for another  what s the problem?</li><li>Wilson admits that there may be reason to stretch a concept  but that real counter-examples provide a better reason for doing so than do imaginary cases. </li><li>There may be <U>no</U> necessary and sufficient conditions for the application of our concepts, as common-sense notions don t necessarily pick out natural <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_30">kinds</A></U><SUB>30</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_30"></A>. </li><li>Our concepts are not freely chosen, but derive from our environment. As our environment expands  by attention to real  difficult cases our concepts  in this case of what an individual is  should also expand. The cases under consideration will be those that don t satisfy (or mostly don t satisfy) the common-sense criteria offered above. </li><li>Before considering what concept(s) should replace our common sense concept of individuality, Wilson will explore in the next section the framework within which the question can be addressed. </li></ul><BR><B>5. What is It? </B> <ul type="disc"><li>The aim of this book is to develop a new theory of biological <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>31</SUP> and persistence, making it a contribution to metaphysics as well as to the philosophy of biology. In the rest of this chapter, Wilson develops his metaphysical framework. </li><li>His first assumption  which he takes to be mainstream if not uncontroversial  is that  <I>a living entity is a potentially finite three-dimensional persisting object</I> . This involves denying that it is a construction of momentary <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_32">objects</A></U><SUB>32</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_32"></A> or <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_33">time-slices</A></U><SUB>33</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_33"></A>. The  <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_34">potential</A></U><SUB>34</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_34"></A> finitude clause imports that there are changes that will terminate the existence of the individual, as well as allowing that there are more benign changes the individual can survive. </li><li>Wilson thinks some will reject the  <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_35">temporal</A></U><SUB>35</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_35"></A> essentialism implicit in this assumption. He unpacks this worry by explaining that it implies that an individual has some <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_36">essential</A></U><SUB>36</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_36"></A> properties without which it cannot survive. </li><li>Wilson thinks essentialism is unfairly maligned  being tarred with the brush of a version that <U><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_37">species</A></U><SUB>37</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_37"></A></U> have stereotypical properties. </li><li>Even before we know what the full complement of essential properties (for an individual) is, we know that if it is not immortal, there are some changes that it cannot survive. Wilson gives the example of a magnolia tree  it is not possible that it would <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_38">survive</A></U><SUB>38</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_38"></A> being burnt to ashes, or metamorphosing into an animal. </li><li>The objection to essentialism is indeed species-essentialism, whereby it is the possession of a particular morphological trait that qualifies an individual as a member of a species, which is explanatory and plays an important role in biological organisation. Mayr, Hull and Dupre are martialed as opponents of this idea, eg.:- <BR>& "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5852.htm">Hull (David L.) - The Effect of Essentialism on Taxonomy - Two Thousand Years of Stasis (I)</A>", <BR>& "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5853.htm">Hull (David L.) - The Effect of Essentialism on Taxonomy - Two Thousand Years of Stasis (II)</A>", <BR>& "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_299.htm">Dupre (John) - The Disorder of Things: Metaphysical Foundations of the Disunity of Science</A>".</li><li>Wilson rehearses the rejection of Platonic archetypes and Aristotelian substantial forms once evolution by natural selection had turned biology into a historical science. Essences became illegitimate in scientific explanation. But this is not the essentialist doctrine Wilson supports. </li><li>Locke coined the term  <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>39</SUP> , taken up by <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_40">Wiggins</A></U><SUB>40</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_40"></A> in "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_54.htm">Wiggins (David) - Sameness and Substance</A>", where a distinction is made between <I><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_29.htm">Phase Sortals</A><SUP>41</SUP></I> and <I>Substance <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">Sortals</A><SUP>42</SUP></I>. While some philosophers use the terms <I><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>43</SUP></I> for any sorting term, Wilson will support those who restrict its use to identify members of a <I>substantial</I> kind, which supplies the most basic answer to the question  What is it? . </li><li>A <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>44</SUP> is a <I>substantial <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>45</SUP></I> just in case a thing correctly identified as falling under it cannot cease to fulfil the criteria of identity associated with that <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>46</SUP> without ceasing to exist. </li><li>Wilson gives the example of the <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortals</A><SUP>47</SUP>:-<BR>& Well-dressed man (WDM), and<BR>& Human being<BR>A WDM <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_48">doesn t</A></U><SUB>48</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_48"></A> cease to exist when dressed like a tramp, but a human being ceases to <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_49">exist</A></U><SUB>49</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_49"></A> as a <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_50">corpse</A></U><SUB>50</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_50"></A>. </li><li>On examination, a living thing is not just a  thing but one of a particular kind, of which it must belong to one or another. If so, it can t be a thing <I>simpliciter</I>, but a <I>substantial <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>51</SUP></I> defines what kind of thing it is. </li><li>But this does not yet rule out the possibility of a <I>bare <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_52">particular</A></U><SUB>52</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_52"></A></I> - something that can undergo any change whatever, while remaining numerically the same thing. At any one time it has to belong to one kind or another, but can <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_53">hop</A></U><SUB>53</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_53"></A> from kind to kind as its career progresses. </li><li>Wilson doesn t think there <U>are any</U> bare particulars. He s not sure whether the concept of a bare particular is coherent, but for simplicity s sake he ll focus on the possibility that a <U>living thing</U> might be a bare particular. We ll see what his reasons are for denying this possibility in due <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_54">course</A></U><SUB>54</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_54"></A>, but they start from the claim that the statement  Every thing is a thing of some kind is ambiguous between:- <BR>& a). A thing must belong to some kind or other at every time it exists; and<BR>& b). A thing must be a thing of some kind or other, and there must be a kind such that it is of that kind throughout its existence. </li><li>In a footnote, Wilson points out that even (b) allows for the possibility that a thing might (counterfactually) have been of a substantial kind other than it actually is, provided it was of that kind from the start of its actual existence. He rejects the possibility, but can t explain why until "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5141.htm">Wilson (Jack) - The Necessity of Biological Origin and Substantial Kinds</A>" (but, as the title suggests, it is due to origin <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_55">essentialism</A></U><SUB>55</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_55"></A>). </li><li>Anyway, (a) but not (b) is consistent with bare particulars. Wilson rehearses the <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_37.htm">metamorphosis</A><SUP>56</SUP> of a bare particular from one kind to another, always belonging to a kind, but not to the same <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_57">one</A></U><SUB>57</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_57"></A>. There might be no <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>58</SUP> under which it falls for the whole of its existence. He notes in a footnote that Aristotle (in the <I><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_59">Categories</A></U><SUB>59</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_59"></A> </I>) allows for bare particulars. </li><li>A particular fulfilling (b) is a <I>substantial particular</I>. Wilson claims that because living things are spatially and temporally finite 3-dimensonal entities, there are some changes they cannot undergo  which if they were to undergo them would result in their death or <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_60">annihilation</A></U><SUB>60</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_60"></A>. If so, it has essential properties without which it would cease to exist; and this implies that there is at least one substantial kind that characterises it throughout its existence. This is a deliverance of common-sense <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_61">ontology</A></U><SUB>61</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_61"></A>. </li><li>The  at least one provision follows <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_62">Wiggins</A></U><SUB>62</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_62"></A> ("<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_54.htm">Wiggins (David) - Sameness and Substance</A>", p. 60  ie. "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3492.htm">Wiggins (David) - Outline of a Theory of Individuation (S&S)</A>") in allowing a thing to belong to more than one substantial kind simultaneously, provided (of course) that these kinds have the same persistence conditions. </li><li>It s an empirical matter what the persistence conditions of any substantial kind are, and also to which substantial kind a particular belongs. There s no guarantee that we should ever know the answer to either of these questions  though we do know that a living thing does belong to a substantial <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_63">kind</A></U><SUB>63</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_63"></A>. </li><li>So, what <U>are</U> the substantial kinds? He quotes (and is generally supportive of) "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_640.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Kinds of Being: Study of Individuation, Identity and the Logic of Sortal Terms</A>", p. <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_64">5</A></U><SUB>64</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_64"></A>, to the effect that if we are realists as far as <I>individuals</I> are concerned, we must be realists as far as <I>substantial kinds</I> are concerned. This is because individuals are <I>necessarily</I> of a certain kind, and kinds are <I>necessarily</I> kinds of individuals. Individuals and substantial kinds exist irrespective of the existence of our or any <U>minds</U>. </li><li>Lowe is considering both <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural</A><SUP>65</SUP> and non-natural kinds+XX+ (ie. <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_66">artefacts</A></U><SUB>66</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_66"></A>). Wilson (and Lowe) are more certain of natural than artificial kinds being of mind-independent reality.</li><li>Wilson seems to argue circularly about real individuals implying real kinds, and real kinds implying real individuals. </li><li>He stresses that what living things there are has nothing to do with our interests, or what we happen to notice. </li><li>It s up to science to determine what are the substantial kinds, but philosophy can tell us what must be true of them, whatever they are. In particular, it tells us that an individual of substantial kind F ceases to exist when it ceases to be an F.</li><li>He considers <em><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_67">Transubstantiation</A></U><SUB>67</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_67"></A></em>, where it is alleged that we can have a single individual that is of one substantial kind F at one time, and another G at another, there F<>G. There are several options open to us where we have a putative (but impossible) case of the transubstantiation of a living thing:-</li><li><b>1. x does not survive the change from F to G</b>: Wilson gives the options as annihilation, decay or <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_68">fission</A></U><SUB>68</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_68"></A>. If one of these (or maybe another) situation is not the case, then the situation has been misdescribed. </li><li><b>2a. x survives, but F turns out not to be a substantial <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>69</SUP></b>: so, F is one of the <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_70">two</A></U><SUB>70</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_70"></A> varieties of <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_29.htm">phase sortal</A><SUP>71</SUP>.</li><li><b>2b. x survives, but x turns out not to be of kind F</b>: for instance, individuals of kind G mimic those of kind F for part of their life, but are always of kind G for all that. </li><li><b>2c. x survives, but x really is of kind F </b>: either (much as above) x looks like a G, but is in fact an F still. Alternatively, G is a <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_29.htm">phase sortal</A><SUP>72</SUP> compatible with F, so x s substantial kind remains F.</li><li>If transubstantiation is impossible, and individual living entity must remain under one substantial kind for the period of its existence. But, Wilson hasn t adjudicated between different <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_P5138_73">systems</A></U><SUB>73</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_P5138_73"></A> of substantial kinds. In the next chapter ("<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5139.htm">Wilson (Jack) - The Biological and Philosophical Roots of Individuality</A>") he will consider philosophical accounts of individuality, and why we should care about it. </li></ul><BR><U><B>Outstanding Tasks</U></B><ol type="1"><li>Review the critique of unspecified BG assumptions / concepts in "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3666.htm">Wilkes (Kathleen) - Thought Experiments</A>".</li><li>Urgently read:-<BR>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_54.htm">Wiggins (David) - Sameness and Substance</A>", and<BR>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1312.htm">Wiggins (David) - Sameness and Substance Renewed</A>".</li><li>Populate the Notes on:- <ul type="disc"><li><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_942.htm">Life</A><SUP>74</SUP>, and</li><li><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_102.htm">Haecceity</A><SUP>75</SUP> </li></ul>. </li></ol></P><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U> ("<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5138.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Beyond Horses and Oak Trees: A New Theory of Individuation for Living Entities</A>")</B><a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_4"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_4"><B>Footnote 4</B></A></U>: Problems like this incline Olson to deny that we were ever <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1174.htm">zygotes</a> (though perdurantism (<A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_42.htm">Click here for Note</A>) would allow us to say that we were, it seems to me).<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_8"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_8"><B>Footnote 8</B></A></U>: We might ask why we care about these restrictions  maybe we re only interested in organisms of the  normal kind? Wilson s response to this unasked question appears to be in the following bullet.<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_9"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_9"><B>Footnote 9</B></A></U>: The 5 kingdoms are Monera (Prokaryota), Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. See <A HREF = "http://library.thinkquest.org/28751/review/5kingdom/1.html" TARGET = "_top">Link</A> (for instance) for further information. No doubt we could dispute whether this  two out of five kingdoms point weighs the kingdoms appropriately  and what criteria for weighting are appropriate in the first place. Or, as noted previously, we might just not care about the <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</a> of non-animals (or even non-higher-animals), or at least not see why they all need to be satisfied by a single criterion. <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_12"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_12"><B>Footnote 12</B></A></U>: It looks like "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3817.htm">Wilson (Edward O.) - Sociobiology: The Abridged Edition</A>", Chapter 18 - <I>The Colonial Invertebrates</I> - would be worth a look?<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_13"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_13"><B>Footnote 13</B></A></U>: The colony is functionally isomorphic to a jellyfish, so it seems to me the issue has to do with the degree of integration of the cells and organs, and their ability to survive in isolation from one another. Also, the degree of neurological integration is important (cf. the <I><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_68.htm">dicephalus</a></I> - <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_68.htm">Click here for Note</A>).<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_16"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_16"><B>Footnote 16</B></A></U>: <B>Question</B>: Currently we can t  do <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_763.htm">brain transplants</a>, but one day we might be able to do. Just what <u>is</u>  this world ?<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_17"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_17"><B>Footnote 17</B></A></U>: <B>Question</B>: Is there <U>really</U> such a plethora of <U>actual</U> exotic cases in Personal Identity, which means that we can do without TEs?<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_21"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_21"><B>Footnote 21</B></A></U>: Presumably this is a process that could happen; but is  it  the mass of cells  still a dog? If not, could Clover really be (identical to) Rover? Is this a conceptual issue  that things cannot change their primary kind  assumed to be DOG in the case of dogs  or has it to do with the empirical possibilities open to the <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kind</a> DOG?<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_23"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_23"><B>Footnote 23</B></A></U>: Pursue the idea of  truth within the story under the head of <I>anti-realism</I> (Chapter 5 of "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_03/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_3782.htm">Vardy (Peter) & Arliss (Julie) - The Thinker's Guide to God</A>").<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_24"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_24"><B>Footnote 24</B></A></U>: But, presumably, if we ask enough questions about the missing details in the TE or literary fantasy we can expose the impossibilities. Also, the <U>impossibility</U> of such fantasies is conceptually revealing, and so helpful. We don t find <U>impossibilities</U> in nature, so need TEs to reveal them.<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_25"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_25"><B>Footnote 25</B></A></U>: So, what might be metaphysically possible might not be nomologically possible. This is important when we consider <U>minds</U>, which <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1263.htm">supervene</a> on real physical things (brains), and so might not exist if the laws of nature were significantly different.<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_26"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_26"><B>Footnote 26</B></A></U>: Is it really the case that <U>everything</U> would be so different in this case? <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_27"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_27"><B>Footnote 27</B></A></U>: Concepts (<A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_23.htm">Click here for Note</A>) are central in this discussion, as they are in the rest of philosophy  I need to have something to say on the matter. See "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_16/Abstract_16121.htm">Papineau (David) - The Importance of Philosophical Intuition</A>", which refers on to "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_02/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_2711.htm">Brandom (Robert) - Making It Explicit: Reasoning, Representing & Discursive Commitment</A>", pp. 126-7. <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_28"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_28"><B>Footnote 28</B></A></U>: <ol type="1"><li>But surely TEs help us to prise apart what we habitually run together, and</li><li>Sometimes we want to consider what would happen in worlds other than our own  or at least in (what may be) aspects of our world of which we have no direct experience - eg. resurrection.</li></ol><a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_29"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_29"><B>Footnote 29</B></A></U>: But, surely, this has to be reviewed on a case by case basis  though it is an important warning. Also, doesn t this objection apply as much to obscure real-world cases that were not pre-supposed when our concepts were created? As noted before, if our concept INDIVIDUAL works OK for oak-trees, horses and the like, when what does it matter if it fails for slime-moulds?<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_30"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_30"><B>Footnote 30</B></A></U>: What s the justification for introducing <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</a> here? Is the idea that without a covering <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kind</a> concept, the boundaries of the concept will be arbitrary or conventional, or even that the concept will be ill-defined?<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_32"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_32"><B>Footnote 32</B></A></U>: This would be a case of <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_761.htm">Exdurantism</a>. <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_33"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_33"><B>Footnote 33</B></A></U>: This is the acceptance of <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_7/Notes_760.htm">endurantism</a> and a rejection of <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_42.htm">perdurantism</a>. I need to ensure I fully understand the antipathy between substances / <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortals</a> and perdurantism, which completely escaped me when I first touched on the topic of perdurantism. <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_34"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_34"><B>Footnote 34</B></A></U>: The  potential seems a little quaint, in that no-one believes in the possibility of everlasting organisms. <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_35"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_35"><B>Footnote 35</B></A></U>: I understand property-essentialism, but the use of the term  temporal implies that the doctrine has something to do with a philosophy of time, when it doesn t, other than that we re talking about persistence of an object through time. Wilson has a footnote  in which he points out that this assumption  of temporal essentialism  doesn t imply the <I><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_121.htm">modal</a></I> essentialism he argues for in "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5141.htm">Wilson (Jack) - The Necessity of Biological Origin and Substantial Kinds</A>"; but the footnote otherwise just repeats what he had said earlier about <I>temporal</I> essentialism, without explaining the  temporal .  Temporal essentialism is hot a technical term in <em>Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy</em>. <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_36"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_36"><B>Footnote 36</B></A></U>: Might it not be  as with games and family resemblances  while no one property is essential, that we need  enough to the  right degree ? <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_37"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_37"><B>Footnote 37</B></A></U>: At least, I think that s what he means. Presumably this causes a problem for evolutionary theory, in that it would make species static, rather than continually evolving. He says he comes back to the matter later  presumably in "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_05/Abstract_5141.htm">Wilson (Jack) - The Necessity of Biological Origin and Substantial Kinds</A>".<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_38"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_38"><B>Footnote 38</B></A></U>: But, is this so obviously so, in either case? <ol type="1"><li>People have imagined the Phoenix  or Dracula  being regenerated from the ashes (and something similar was imagined in a recent episode of <I>Torchwood</I> - the hero was splatted to bits but somehow regenerated). Now these TEs might be incoherent (as they most certainly are) but some discussion is required. </li><li><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_37.htm">Metamorphosis</a> is a complex matter  if (say) a grub persists to the imago via the pupa, why couldn t a tree <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_37.htm">metamorphose</a> into an animal, if it did so gradually enough and we had a detailed story to tell? Again, the story would probably be incoherent, but the tale needs telling. </li></ol><a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_40"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_40"><B>Footnote 40</B></A></U>: "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1337.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Biological Individuality - The identity and Persistence of Living Entities</A>" was published in 1999, which is earlier than "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1312.htm">Wiggins (David) - Sameness and Substance Renewed</A>".<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_48"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_48"><B>Footnote 48</B></A></U>: I m not sure this is expressed correctly. The human being who was well-dressed doesn t cease to exist, yet there s no WDM in evidence. <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_49"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_49"><B>Footnote 49</B></A></U>: Occasionally, Wilson uses the verb  living instead of  existing  we need to be careful as they are not the same concept. Life is a biological term (<A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_9/Notes_942.htm">Click here for Note</A>), and if non-biological entities are said to  live then we have widened the scope of the term. This should make us wary of talking about  artificial life or  spiritual life . <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_50"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_50"><B>Footnote 50</B></A></U>: While I fully agree, this is not uncontroversial (witness the alleged  corpse problem for <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_24.htm">animalism</a> - <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_65.htm">Click here for Note</A> and <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_112.htm">Click here for Note</A>).<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_52"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_52"><B>Footnote 52</B></A></U>: <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_102.htm">Click here for Note</A>. Wilson isn t contradicting himself here, because <U>at a time</U> a thing still has to belong to one kind or another. But, I had thought that a bare particular could belong to no kind at all. <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_53"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_53"><B>Footnote 53</B></A></U>: So, we would have unrestricted <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_37.htm">metamorphosis</a> involving change of kind.<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_54"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_54"><B>Footnote 54</B></A></U>: Ensure that we do, and remove this footnote if so!<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_55"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_55"><B>Footnote 55</B></A></U>: See "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_06/Abstract_6828.htm">Kripke (Saul) - Naming and Necessity: Lecture III</A>", Section 4.3 in my write-up.<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_57"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_57"><B>Footnote 57</B></A></U>: So, transubstantiation involves a bare particular, and so would resurrection, if the resurrection body has different persistence conditions to the mortal one (as it must)  though this is to hop on a bit, relying as it does on a kind being defined by its persistence criteria. So, are <U>we</U> bare particulars? Only, I suppose, if we are essentially bodies (and can survive resurrection). If we are essentially immaterial  souls (say)  then our bodies might be inessential attributes that can be changed like clothes (which seems to be the Pauline take on the matter).<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_59"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_59"><B>Footnote 59</B></A></U>: In "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1032.htm">Aristotle - Aristotle 1</A>", but I m not sure I care. <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_60"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_60"><B>Footnote 60</B></A></U>: Are death and annihilation supposed to be the same thing? They aren t, and don t seem to exhaust the possibilities. Can a thing cease to be without either dying or being annihilated? What happens when Goliath is squished so that only Lump1 still exists? (see "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_00/Abstract_444.htm">Gibbard (Allan) - Contingent Identity</A>")<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_61"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_61"><B>Footnote 61</B></A></U>: I couldn t really follow the argument here, and have rather unsuccessfully re-ordered it.<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_62"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_62"><B>Footnote 62</B></A></U>: Again, see if there s any development between "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_00/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_54.htm">Wiggins (David) - Sameness and Substance</A>", and "<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1312.htm">Wiggins (David) - Sameness and Substance Renewed</A>" (ie. "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3500.htm">Wiggins (David) - Outline of a Theory of Individuation</A>").<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_63"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_63"><B>Footnote 63</B></A></U>: Because it s of finite duration, there must be a change it cannot survive, so there must be a property it cannot survive the loss of, and so it must belong to one or more substantial kinds defined by this property. <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_64"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_64"><B>Footnote 64</B></A></U>: Ie., presumably, "<A HREF = "../../../Abstracts/Abstract_03/Abstract_3417.htm">Lowe (E.J.) - Kinds of Being: Introduction</A>".<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_66"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_66"><B>Footnote 66</B></A></U>: Though he also refers to  other non-living natural objects . Does this include, for instance, gold? Some such also certainly seem mind-independent, though mountains, say, may not be?<a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_67"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_67"><B>Footnote 67</B></A></U>: <ul type="disc"><li>Wilson isn t considering the Eucharistic sense here.</li><li>Does what follows really prove that transubstantiation involves a contradiction, or does it just depend on there being no bare particulars? And wasn t the rejection of bare particulars just a premise? </li><li>Presumably ruling out transubstantiation rules out resurrection (unless we are of the substantial kind  embodied person , variously embodied). </li><li>Does it also rule out relative identity as self-contradictory? </li></ul><a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_68"></A><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_68"><B>Footnote 68</B></A></U>: Given that Wilson doesn t accept 4D, fission (<A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_33.htm">Click here for Note</A>) is equivalent to perishing. <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_70"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_70"><B>Footnote 70</B></A></U>: What are these? I thought the only example Wilson gave of a <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_29.htm">phase sortal</a> was  a well-dressed man . <a name="On-Page_Link_P5138_73"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_P5138_73"><B>Footnote 73</B></A></U>: By which, I think, he means  what substantial kinds there are . <BR><BR> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5139.htm">Wilson (Jack) - The Biological and Philosophical Roots of Individuality</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Wilson, Jack - Biological Individuality: The identity and Persistence of Living Entities; 1999, Chap. 2, pp. 22-47<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s Abstract</U><BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "800080">In this Chapter I begin by briefly exploring some of the ways in which individuality is an important first topic for biologists, even those without a theoretical bent. I end the first section with a pair of case studies demonstrating the reality of the problem I hope to solve. In the following sections I sketch some representative philosophical positions about the substantial kinds for living things. I end this chapter by developing a theory of <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">natural kinds</A><SUP>1</SUP> that will effectively underwrite the particular ontology of living things that I will develop in Chapter 3. </FONT><BR><BR><U>Sections</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Why Biologists (Should) Care About Individuality; </li><li>Philosophers on Living Entities; </li><li><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">Natural Kinds</A><SUP>2</SUP> and Substantial Kinds; </li><li>Patterns and <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_27.htm">Natural Kinds</A><SUP>3</SUP>. </li></ol></FONT></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5140.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Individuality and Equivocation</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Wilson, Jack - Biological Individuality: The identity and Persistence of Living Entities; 1999, Chap. 3, pp. 48-68<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s Abstract</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Paradigm Individuals: the Higher Animals. I need a more refined vocabulary of <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>1</SUP> to describe and classify the diversity of life cycle and modes of growth and reproduction found in nature. In this section I begin to develop this vocabulary by examining the properties of an adult higher animal that make it a paradigm of biological individuality.</li><li>Other Possible Solutions. How do we individuate and count organisms that are not like higher animals?</li><li>The Proposed Solution. We must reform the concept of an individual in biology so that it is applicable to all living things. The higher animal deserves a special place in biological thought because it marks the coextension of six kinds of individuality (A particular; a historical entity; a functional individual; a genetic individual; a developmental individual; and a unit of evolution). But if we realize that these six concepts can be divided from one another, we can develop a useful vocabulary that describes all living entities, most of which do not embody all of the concepts. </li></ol></FONT></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5141.htm">Wilson (Jack) - The Necessity of Biological Origin and Substantial Kinds</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Wilson, Jack - Biological Individuality: The identity and Persistence of Living Entities; 1999, Chap. 4, pp. 69-81<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s Abstract</U><BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "800080">In this chapter I argue that some features of a living entity s biological origin as essential to it and explore the implications of this view for an entity s sex and species membership. I argue that a living individual of any kind necessarily has its actual biological origins. The necessity of origin for biological entities guarantees that an entity is by necessity a member of whatever substantial kind it is actually a member. This alone does not entail that an individual will have the phenotype typical to the genetic makeup its sex chromosomes or an essential nature derived from its species membership. This chapter concludes my treatment of identity as a time. </FONT><BR><BR><U>Sections</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>A Valid Argument for <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">Sortal</A><SUP>1</SUP> Essentialism; </li><li>The Necessity of Biological Origin; </li><li>Sex; </li><li>Species Membership and the Necessity of Genealogy </li></ol> </FONT></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5142.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Generation and Corruption</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Wilson, Jack - Biological Individuality: The identity and Persistence of Living Entities; 1999, Chap. 5, pp. 86-104<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s Abstract</U><BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "800080">A living thing of a particular kind begins to exist when an entity first exists that meets the criteria of identity through time for living substantial individuals of that kind. That entity ceases to exist when it ceases to meet them. In this chapter I trace several representative life histories for living individuals of the substantial kinds I identified in Chapter 3 and elaborate on the relations between individuals of these kinds through time. In the following sections I explore the origins, growth, and eventual demise of each kind of living individual by considering a number of examples. Towards the end of the chapter I examine whether death is necessarily the end of the entity. I am convinced that a living thing can die and then live again. If Walt Disney actually had been preserved cryogenically after his death and later revived, he would still be Walt Disney. </FONT><BR><BR><U>Sections</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Genetic Individuals </li><li>Functional Individuals</li><li>Developmental Individuals</li><li>Raising the Dead</li></ol></FONT></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5143.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Personal Identity Naturalized: Our Bodies, Our Selves</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Wilson, Jack - Biological Individuality: The identity and Persistence of Living Entities; 1999, Chap. 6, pp. 105-118<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s Abstract</U><BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "800080">I think that the important issues of human identity can be resolved without recourse to treating person as a substantial kind. Now that I have developed a system of <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_77.htm">individuation</A><SUP>1</SUP>, it seems appropriate to explore its application to human beings and personal identity. I intend for my account of biological individuality to provide grounds for individuating all living things, so it should apply to human beings. In the sections below I discuss the different kinds of biological individuality as they apply to human beings. This discussion provides the groundwork for an exploration of the connection between personal identity and the biological identity of a human organism. </FONT><BR><BR><U>Sections</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li>Human Beings as Biological Entities. A human being is a higher animal. As such, a human being is one of the easier living things to individuate and trace through time. In this section I explain the different kinds of biological individuality as they apply to human beings and describe the persistence conditions for each. </li><li>Is a Person a Human Being? In this section I explain how the different kinds of biological individuality relate to personal identity. </li><li>Conclusions. The reality of a kind as a substantial kind depends on whether or not an entity of that kind ceases to exist if it loses the properties characteristic of that kind. The loss of one or more faculties of a human being or nonhuman animal+XX+ (such as of being a conscious agent, having a unified personality or being worthy of moral consideration) is a tragedy that will affect the way we interact with that creature, but it does not cause that creature to cease to exist. This judgment is subject to revision. </li></ol></FONT></P> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><BR>"<B><A HREF = "../../../PaperSummaries/PaperSummary_05/PaperSummary_5144.htm">Wilson (Jack) - Identity and Sortals: Why Relative Identity Is Self-Contradictory</A></B>"<BR><BR><B>Source</B>: Wilson, Jack - Biological Individuality: The identity and Persistence of Living Entities; 1999, Appendix, pp. 119-126<BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><BR><BR><U>Author s Abstract</U><BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "800080">In this appendix, I explore the role of substantial <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortals</A><SUP>1</SUP> in the relation of identity. Conclusion: Identity is a primitive and absolute relation. Although using a <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>2</SUP> term may be the only way or the best way to clarify of what entity identity is being asserted, the <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>3</SUP> does not play any essential role in the formulation of that assertion of identity. It may give the conditions of identity and unity for an entity of that kind. Different <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortals</A><SUP>4</SUP> do not mark different kinds of identity. The <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_0/Notes_10.htm">sortal</A><SUP>5</SUP> term will specify what kind of thing is asserted about which identity and give the conditions of identity.</FONT></P> <a name="ColourConventions"></a><hr><br><B><U>Text Colour Conventions</U> (see <A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1025.htm">disclaimer</a>)</B><OL TYPE="1"><LI><FONT COLOR = "0000FF">Blue</FONT>: Text by me; &copy; Theo Todman, 2018</li><LI><FONT COLOR = "800080">Mauve</FONT>: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); &copy; the author(s)</li></OL> </center> <BR><HR><BR><center> <TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950> <TR><TD WIDTH="30%">&copy; Theo Todman, June 2007 - August 2018.</TD> <TD WIDTH="40%">Please address any comments on this page to <A HREF="mailto:theo@theotodman.com">theo@theotodman.com</A>.</TD> <TD WIDTH="30%">File output: <time datetime="2018-08-03T00:07" pubdate>03/08/2018 00:07:03</time> <br><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_10/Notes_1010.htm">Website Maintenance Dashboard</A> </TD></TR><TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="#Top">Return to Top of this Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="40%"><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1140.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Philosophy Page</A></TD> <TD WIDTH="30%"><A HREF="../../../index.htm">Return to Theo Todman's Home Page</A></TD> </TR></TABLE></CENTER><HR> </BODY> </HTML>