<!DOCTYPE html><HTML lang="en"> <head><meta charset="utf-8"> <title>Our Uncertain Heritage: Genetics & Human Diversity (Hartl (Daniel L.)) - Theo Todman's Book Collection (Book-Paper Abstracts)</title> <link href="../../../TheosStyle.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"><link rel="shortcut icon" href="../../../TT_ICO.png" /> </head> <a name="Top"></a> <BODY> <div id="header"> <HR><H1>Theo Todman's Book Collection (Book-Paper Abstracts)</H1></div> <hr><CENTER><TABLE class = "Bridge" WIDTH=950><tr><td colspan =3><A HREF = "../BookSummary_1944.htm">Our Uncertain Heritage: Genetics & Human Diversity</A></td></tr><tr><td colspan =3><A HREF = "../../../Authors/H/Author_Hartl (Daniel L.).htm">Hartl (Daniel L.)</a></td></tr><tr><td colspan =3>This Page provides (where held) the <b>Abstract</b> of the above <b>Book</b> and those of all the <b>Papers</b> contained in it.</td></tr><tr><td><A HREF="#ColourConventions">Text Colour-Conventions</a></td><td><A HREF = "../BookCitings_1944.htm">Books / Papers Citing this Book</A></td><td><A HREF = "../BooksToNotes_1944.htm">Notes Citing this Book</A></td></tr></tr></TABLE></CENTER><hr> <P ALIGN = "Justify"><FONT Size = 2 FACE="Arial"><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><B>BOOK ABSTRACT: </B><BR><BR><U>Author s Preface</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1"><li><em>Our Uncertain Heritage</em> is a textbook of human genetics for non-science and non-biology majors. It is written for students who wish to gain some familiarity with human genetics either to satisfy their undergraduate distribution requirements or to satisfy their own curiosity. The book's aim is to provide an understanding of the principles and implications of human genetics without getting bogged down in nonessential details of cellular, molecular, or mathematical biology. The book has no prerequisites, and where the discussion involves concepts that are likely to be unfamiliar to the non-scientist, the necessary background has been provided. However, this background material has been presented in a fresh framework so as to make it interesting even to those who may have encountered it in other courses or in their own reading. This approach is necessary because human genetics has proved to be a popular course with students in sciences other than biology, such as physics, chemistry, geology, mathematics, and the large number of agricultural and engineering fields. </li><li>Human genetics, as might be expected, has proved to be a suitable unifying theme for teaching virtually all aspects of genetics. The scope and fascination of human genetics serve to focus and bind together students whose interests are as diverse as art, languages, literature, history, philosophy, anthropology, sociology, and psychology. This popularity of human genetics is due in part to the natural curiosity that nearly everyone shares about the human body and how it works. Most of us are also concerned with one or more hereditary traits, particularly genetic disorders, that may occur in ourselves or among our relatives. Apart from these personal considerations is the fact that new findings in genetics appear almost weekly in popular news magazines, newspapers, or on television  human insulin produced in bacteria, giant mice produced by injection of growth-hormone genes, genetically engineered plants with superior characteristics. Genetics, which in its widest sense includes parts of cell biology, cytology, molecular biology, microbiology, immunology, virology, population biology, and other fields, has become part of everyday life in our high-tech society, and many students perceive that a knowledge of basic human genetics is an important part of their general education. </li><li>Human genetics is an appropriate theme for teaching genetics for another reason: It is a lively, challenging field, marked by exciting current research such as recombinant DNA and enormously complex legal, moral, ethical, and social problems. Many of these issues inevitably involve a conflict of rights, interests, or values, and reasonable people may disagree as to how these should be weighed and balanced. In many of these cases, an understanding of the scientific issues is prerequisite for discussion of their social implications. Problems related to the social or ethical implications of human genetics are discussed throughout the text in their appropriate context. I have attempted to give a fair and balanced presentation of each of these controversial topics, having adopted the view that, given the facts, students should deliberate the issues and make their own judgments. </li><li>Readers familiar with the first edition will note many changes. This is a different book in many respects. The original 23 chapters have been pared to 14, and some material in the first edition, such as human population growth and an outline of human evolution, has had to be eliminated, whereas other subjects, such as recombinant DNA and cancer-causing viruses, have had to be expanded. These changes in part reflect changes in the field, particularly in the development of the powerful new procedures that have come to be called recombinant DNA and in the growth of understanding of gene structure and function that has been achieved through their application. There are also changes in emphasis in this edition. For example, the discussion of population and quantitative genetics has been rewritten to make it easier, and the discussion of various aspects of behavior genetics has been reorganized into one section in Chapter 14. </li><li>This second edition also has several other features that students and instructors had requested. Each chapter is provided with a comprehensive <U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_B1944_1">summary</A></U><SUB>1</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_B1944_1"></A> for purposes of emphasis and review. Key words are highlighted in the text where they are first defined, a list of key words appears at the end of each chapter, and there is a glossary at the end of the book. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems, graded in difficulty, that challenge the students' understanding and test their skills, and answers are worked out in full at the back of the book. End-of-chapter lists of annotated references for further reading, chosen for accessibility as well as for subject and level of presentation, are also provided. I have emphasized such sources as <em>Scientific American</em>, <em>Annual Review of Genetics</em>, <em>Science</em>, <em>Nature</em>, and, for some subjects, <em>Cell</em>. </li><li>Some parts of this edition of <em>Our Uncertain Heritage</em> are an abbreviated version of the corresponding material in <em>Human Genetics</em> by D. L. Hartl (Harper & Row, 1983), and students may consult this more technical book for further detail. Other parts of <em>Our Uncertain Heritage</em> are wholly new, such as the discussion of population genetics in Chapter 13 or the new approach to heritability in Chapter 14. One of the advantages of writing a book for non-majors is that the author is less constrained to cover material in a standard manner or from a particular point of view. Thus, I have used analogy rather freely and have incorporated illuminating historical detail, such as the story, in Chapter 5, of hemophilia in Tsarevich Alexis. </li><li>The organization of the book is straightforward and proceeds from the less abstract to the more abstract. Chapters 1 through 7 cover classical Mendelian genetics with a focus on cells (Chapter 1), chromosomes and gamete formation (Chapter 2), autosomal dominance (Chapter 3), autosomal-recessive inheritance and linkage (Chapter 4), sex linkage (Chapter 5), and abnormalities in chromosome number (Chapter 6) and structure (Chapter 7). Somatic cell genetics is included in Chapter 4 and general aspects of sexual differentiation in Chapter 5. Some instructors may wish to begin their course with Chapters 8 through 12, which cover DNA structure and replication (Chapter 8), transcription and translation (Chapter 9), mutation (Chapter 10), viruses and cancer (Chapter 11), and immunity and blood groups (Chapter 12). Recombinant DNA is included in Chapter 8, aspects of gene regulation in Chapter 9, transposable elements in Chapter 10, and retroviruses in Chapter 11. The final chapters deal with population genetics (Chapter 13) and quantitative genetics and behavior (Chapter 14), and there is a section on genetic counselling in Chapter 14. </li><li>Special thanks should go to & </li><li>A few comments about the wordplay in the title are perhaps in order, lest the title be mistaken as an author's failed attempt to be cute. The title does not imply any questioning of the validity of Mendel's laws or associated genetic principles. The play is on the word "uncertain," referring, on the one hand, to the unpredictability of the outcome of segregation and recombination in the transmission of genes from one generation to the next. Prospective parents who decide to have a baby are undertaking a genetic experiment the outcome of which is by no means entirely predictable, and hence is uncertain. A second connotation of uncertain is "dubious," and in this sense the term alludes to the perhaps surprising number of harmful genes hidden in normal individuals all of us which, when they come together in unfavorable combinations, cause severe genetic disorders and much unhappiness. The title also plays on "heritage," meaning primarily genetic inheritance in the present context, but also pointing to the social heritage of today's newborns, an uncertain heritage of fearsome problems in a divided and dangerous world. </li></ol> </FONT> <BR><U>Chapters</U><FONT COLOR = "800080"><ol type="1">Preface  ix<li>Cells and Cell Division  1 <ul type="disc"><li>Cells  3</li><li>Cell Structure  6</li><li>Cell Division  14</li><li>Mitosis  16</li><li>Capturing Chromosomes in Metaphase  24</li><li>Genetic Information in the Chromosomes  25</li><li><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Link_B1944_2">Summary</A></U><SUB>2</SUB><a name="On-Page_Return_B1944_2"></A>  31<BR>& Key Words  32<BR>& Problems  32<BR>& Further Reading  33</li></ul></li><li>Chromosomes and Gamete Formation  34<ul type="disc"><li>Viewing Human Chromosomes  35</li><li>Identification of Human Chromosomes  37</li><li>Normal Variation in Human Chromosomes  42</li><li>Sexual and Asexual Inheritance  45</li><li>The Strategy of Meiosis  46</li><li>The Mechanics of Meiosis: Prophase I  47</li><li>The Mechanics of Meiosis: Later Events  54</li><li>Summary of Meiosis  57</li><li>Development of Gametes  57</li></ul></li><li>Mendel's Laws and Dominant Inheritance  63<ul type="disc"><li>Some Important Terminology  66</li><li>Segregation  69</li><li>Dominance  72</li><li>Segregation of Genes in Humans  74</li><li><a name="1"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1174.htm">Homozygotes</A><SUP>3</SUP> and <a name="2"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1174.htm">Heterozygotes</A><SUP>4</SUP>  77</li><li>Simple Mendelian Inheritance in Humans  78</li><li>Human Heredity: Some Cautionary Remarks  85</li><li>Simple Mendelian Dominance  87</li></ul></li><li>Mendel's Laws and Recessive Inheritance  94<ul type="disc"><li>Mechanics of Recessive Inheritance  95</li><li>Characteristics of Autosomal-Recessive Inheritance  97</li><li>Familial Emphysema  98</li><li>Cystic Fibrosis  98</li><li>Sickle Cell Anemia  99</li><li>Tay-Sachs Disease  102</li><li>Albinism  103</li><li>Independent Assortment, Recombination, and Linkage  106</li><li>Linkage in Humans  109</li><li>Somatic Cell Genetics  110</li></ul></li><li>The Genetic Basis of Sex  118<ul type="disc"><li>The Sex Ratio  119</li><li>Y-linked Genes  122</li><li>X-linked Genes  123</li><li>Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency  126</li><li>Color Blindness  127</li><li>Hemophilia  127</li><li>Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (HGPRT Deficiency)  132</li><li>Dosage Compensation  133</li><li><a name="3"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_12/Notes_1243.htm">Embryonic</A><SUP>5</SUP> and Fetal Development  136</li><li>Teratogens  140</li><li>Differentiation of the Sexes  141</li><li>Ambiguous Sex  145</li></ul></li><li>Abnormalities in Chromosome Number  153<ul type="disc"><li>Types of Chromosome Abnormality  154</li><li>Nondisjunction  155</li><li>Sex-chromosomal Abnormalities  155</li><li>Trisomy X  157</li><li>XYY and Criminality  157</li><li>XXY: Klinefelter Syndrome  160</li><li>XO: Turner Syndrome  161</li><li>Autosomal Abnormalities  162</li><li>Trisomy 21: Down Syndrome  163</li><li>Trisomy 18: Edwards Syndrome  167</li><li>Trisomy 13: Patau Syndrome  167</li><li>Amniocentesis  168</li><li>Death Before Birth  172</li></ul></li><li>Abnormalities in Chromosome Structure  180<ul type="disc"><li>Chromsome Breakage  181</li><li>Duplications and Deficiencies  182</li><li>Inversions  184</li><li>Reciprocal Translocations  188</li><li>Robertsonian Translocations  192</li><li>Chromosomal Changes in Evolution  194</li></ul></li><li>The Double Helix  201<ul type="disc"><li>A Chemical Prelude  202</li><li>Biological Molecules  203</li><li>DNA Structure: A Closer Look  205</li><li>Three-dimensional Structures of DNA  210</li><li>DNA Replication  214</li><li>Restriction Mapping of DNA  216</li><li>Recombinant DNA  221</li><li>Applications of Recombinant DNA  222</li></ul></li><li>Gene Expression: Nature Is Blind and Reads Braille  230<ul type="disc"><li>The Structure of Proteins  231</li><li>Transcription  236</li><li>Translation  238</li><li>The Genetic Code  241</li><li>The Mechanics of Translation  243</li><li>RNA Splicing: Introns and Exons  245</li><li>Regulation of Gene Expression  247</li><li>Hemoglobin Regulation  248</li><li>Regulation by DNA Modification  250</li><li>DNA Alterations During Development  252</li><li>Regulation of Transcription  256</li><li>Feedback Inhibition  258</li></ul></li><li>Mutation  267<ul type="disc"><li>Types of Mutations  268</li><li>The Genetic Basis of Mutation  270</li><li>Missense, Nonsense, Silent, and Frameshift Mutations  272</li><li>Rates of Mutation  276</li><li>Insertion Mutations and Transposable Elements  279</li><li>Radiation as a Cause of Mutation  281</li><li>Chemicals as Mutagens  287</li><li>The Ames Test  289</li><li>Mutagens and Carcinogens in the Environment  291</li></ul></li><li>Viruses and Cancer<ul type="disc"><li>Viruses  300</li><li>Characteristics of Viruses  301</li><li>Lambda; A Viral Parasite of Escherichia coli  303</li><li>Influenza Virus  308</li><li>Cancer  311</li><li>Genetics of Cancer  312</li><li>Polyoma: A DNA Tumor Virus  313</li><li>Retroviruses, Endogenous Viruses, and Selfish DNA  315</li><li>Avian Sarcoma Virus and Cancer  316</li></ul></li><li>Immunity and Blood Groups<ul type="disc"><li>The Immune Response  325</li><li>Clonal Selection  327</li><li>Varieties of Antibody  330</li><li>A Closer Look at IgG  331</li><li>Gene Splicing and the Origin of Antibody Diversity  332</li><li>Breakdowns of Immunity  335</li><li><a name="4"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_1/Notes_104.htm">Transplants</A><SUP>6</SUP>  336</li><li>HLA and Disease Associations  339</li><li>The ABO Blood Groups  340</li><li>The Rh Blood Groups  346</li><li>Other Blood Groups  348</li><li>Applications of Blood Groups  349</li></ul></li><li>Population Genetics<ul type="disc"><li>Genetic Variation  358</li><li>Allele Frequencies and Genotype Frequencies  360</li><li>Implications of the Hardy-Weinberg Rule  364</li><li>Differentiation of Populations: Race  367</li><li>Inbreeding  371</li><li>Mutation  375</li><li>Migration  377</li><li>Selection  379</li><li>Mutation-Selection Balance  383</li><li>Random Genetic Drift  384</li><li>Founder Effects  385</li></ul></li><li>Quantitative and Behavior Genetics  394<ul type="disc"><li>Multifactorial Inheritance  395</li><li>Multifactorial Traits: An Example  396</li><li>Total Fingerprint Ridge Count  398</li><li>Heritability  400</li><li>Another Type of Heritability  403</li><li><a name="5"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1173.htm">Twins</A><SUP>7</SUP>  405</li><li>MZ and DZ <a name="6"></a><A HREF="../../../Notes/Notes_11/Notes_1173.htm">Twins</A><SUP>8</SUP> in the Study of Threshold Traits  407</li><li>Heritabilities of Threshold Traits  409</li><li>Genetic Counselling  410</li><li>Genetics of Human Behavior  413</li><li>Male and Female Behavior  415</li><li>Race and IQ  418</li></ul></li><li>Glossary  425<BR>Answers  445<BR>Credits  454<BR>Index  457 </li></ol> </FONT><BR><HR><BR><U><B>In-Page Footnotes</U> (<a name="7"></a>"<A HREF = "../../../BookSummaries/BookSummary_01/BookPaperAbstracts/BookPaperAbstracts_1944.htm">Hartl (Daniel L.) - Our Uncertain Heritage: Genetics & Human Diversity</A>")</B><a name="On-Page_Link_B1944_1"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_B1944_1"><B>Footnote 1</B></A></U>: It s probably worth reading these first to determine whether it s necessary to read the corresponding chapters in detail. <a name="On-Page_Link_B1944_2"></A><BR><BR><U><A HREF="#On-Page_Return_B1944_2"><B>Footnote 2</B></A></U>: This Section appears at the end of every Chapter, so is omitted hereafter. <BR><BR><FONT COLOR = "0000FF"><HR><B>BOOK COMMENT: </B><BR><BR>HarperCollins Publishers Inc, New York, 1985</P> <a name="ColourConventions"></a><hr><br><B><U>Text Colour Conventions</U> (see <A 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