- "Body, Soul, and Life Everlasting is careful, thoughtful, and thorough; it provides a much-needed antidote to the facile endorsements of mind-body monism so characteristic of contemporary theology and philosophy."
… Alvin Plantinga
- "In a time when the traditional theological distinction between soul and body, or between spiritual and corporeal aspects of human nature, has frequently been dismissed as an unbiblical and psychologically untenable dualism, John Cooper offers a balanced and well-constructed argument in defense of the traditional perspective."
… Theology Today
- "A clearly written, well-argued defense of mind-body dualism. Anyone with interest in the religious implications of alternative theories of mind, and especially the bearing of these theories on convictions about the afterlife1, will find Cooper's work valuable."
… Philosophy of Religion
- "This work should be required reading for Christian philosophers, theologians, psychologists, and others interested in the perennial question as to the nature of human persons and their destiny beyond the grave."
… C. Stephen Evans
- "Cooper's overview of the debate and logical analysis of the issues involved are admirable. This book will be of interest to scholars of biblical anthropology and eschatology."
… Religious Studies Review
- "Cooper provides the exhilarating prospect of permitting us to remain properly and fashionably ‘holistic' about human nature while yet affirming the ‘dualism' implicit in Scripture and tradition.... Cogent and illuminating."
… The Thomist
- John W. Cooper is professor of philosophical theology at Calvin Theological Seminary, Grand Rapids, Michigan. His other books include Our Father in Heaven: Christian Faith and Inclusive Language for God.
Acknowledgments – xiii
Preface to the Second Printing – xv
Introduction: The Body-Soul Question: Still A Vexing Problem – 1
- Traditional Christian Anthropology and Its Modern Critics – 7
- Old Testament Anthropology: The Holistic Emphasis – 33
- Old Testament Anthropology: The Dualistic Implication – 52
- The Anthropology of Intertestamental Eschatology – 73
- The Monism-Dualism Debate about New Testament Anthropology – 94
- Anthropology And Personal Eschatology in the New Testament: The Non-Pauline Writings – 110
- Anthropology And Personal Eschatology in the New Testament: The Pauline Epistles – 134
- New Testament Eschatology and Philosophical Anthropology – 158
- Practical And Theological Objections against Dualism – 179
- Holistic Dualism, Science, and Philosophy – 204
… Index of Subjects – 233
… Index of Authors – 236
… Index of Scripture References – 239
"Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting: Preface to the Second Printing"
Source: Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting, 1989, Preface
Full Text (with selected footnotes1)
I. The Original Argument
- It is fair to ask why a book a decade old and out of print for several years should be republished. The short answer is that it stands up well in addressing issues and arguments that continue to be widely contended. It presents a case that remains relevant, robust, and right on target. A lot has been written since the book appeared. But instead of revising it extensively to dialogue with current scholarship, I reintroduce it by surveying recent contributions to the monism-dualism debate and indicating how the original version is still engaging.
- Body, Soul, and Life Everlasting was written to remind thoughtful Christians that some sort of "dualistic" anthropology is entailed2 by the biblical teaching of the intermediate state, a doctrine that is affirmed by the vast majority3 in historic Christianity. The book makes the case that as Holy Scripture progressively discloses what happens to humans when they die, it teaches not only that each of us will undergo bodily resurrection, but that believers continue to exist "with the Lord" until the resurrection. The Old Testament notion of ghostly survival in Sheol, eventually augmented with an affirmation of bodily resurrection, is developed by the Holy Spirit into the New Testament revelation of fellowship with Christ between each believer’s death and the general resurrection at Christ’s return. Thus the Bible indicates that humans do not cease to exist4 between death and resurrection, a condition sometimes euphemistically termed "soul sleep," or that final resurrection occurs immediately upon death.
- Body, Soul goes on to argue that, given this teaching of Scripture, human nature must be so constituted that we — the very individuals who live on earth — can exist at least temporarily while our physical bodies or organisms do not. In other words, there must be enough of a duality in human nature so that God can sustain Moses, Paul, and my mother in fellowship with him even though they are currently without their earthly bodies. At the same time, I follow Scripture, most traditional theology, and almost all current thought in emphasizing the unity of human nature, its essential bodiliness, and resurrection as the final Christian hope. All things considered, therefore, the biblical view of the human constitution is some kind of "holistic dualism."
- The argument of the book is mainly5 exegesis and theological reflection on Scripture, only touching on some of the philosophical aspects of the body-soul or mind-body problem. It does not endorse a particular philosophical anthropology, such as that of Augustine, Thomas, Descartes, or Kant. But it does identify a condition that a philosophical account of human nature must6 meet in order to be consistent with what most of the holy catholic church affirms as a teaching of Scripture. To challenge the soundness of the book’s conclusion about the constitution of human nature would require a strong, fully elaborated historical-exegetical-theological7 case against the claim that the Bible envisions an intermediate state between humans’ death and their bodily resurrection.
II. Recent Affirmations of the Traditional Christian Position
- One recent piece of evidence that the traditional doctrine still thrives among large numbers of faithful Christians8 is found in The Catechism of the Catholic Church. Consider its exposition of the Apostles’ Creed’s article on the resurrection: "In death, the separation of the soul from the body, the human body decays and the soul goes to meet God, while awaiting its reunion with its glorified body" (par. 997). The duality required by this doctrine of the afterlife9 is clearly stated, while the unity of human nature is also strongly emphasized: "The human person, created in the image of God, is a being at once corporeal and spiritual" (par. 362). "The unity of soul and body is so profound that one has to consider the soul to be the ‘form10’ of the body; ... spirit and matter, in man, are not two natures united, but rather their union forms a single nature" (par. 366).
- The historic doctrine is still articulated by leading theologians. For example, Joseph Ratzinger, now11 Cardinal and head of the Roman Catholic Magisterium, has done so extensively in Eschatology: Death and Eternal Life. This work briefly surveys the same biblical and intertestamental texts considered in Body, Soul and comes to virtually identical conclusions. It strongly defends the intermediate state and the reunification of human nature in the final resurrection at the return of Christ.
- This reading of the relevant texts and their historical background remains standard fare in biblical scholarship. For example, E. P. Sanders12 has recently affirmed that the same variety of beliefs about personal eschatology that were identified in Body, Soul as background for the New Testament can be found in Judaism during the first century A.D. Tom Wright13 makes a similar point, identifying three standard views:
The evidence from intertestamental Judaism crucial to Body, Soul’s reading of the relevant New Testament texts continues to be recognized by leading scholars.
- The first, held by the Sadducees, denies the afterlife14.
- The second was held by Hellenistic Jews, influenced by Plato, who affirmed the immortal soul and sometimes also the resurrection.
- The third group, the majority, "speak of the bodily resurrection of the dead and frequently address the problem of an intermediate state...:”
- Scripture commentators follow suit. To take one important text, for example, recent exegeses of Jesus’ promise of Paradise "today15" to the dying thief in Luke 23:43 still treat it as a clear reference to an intermediate state. According to Robert Stein, it is a "temporary state of. . . conscious experience with Jesus in paradise.” Whatever doctrinal inferences are made from such texts, historical evidence for the traditional reading has not been eroded or successfully reinterpreted in recent scholarship16. An example from Paul’s epistles is Ben Witherington III’s exegesis of 2 Corinthians 5:1-10, a classic text for the intermediate state: "Paul speaks of three states:
The historic interpretation of Scripture continues to flourish.
- 1. The present condition in the tent-like frame,
- 2. The intermediate state of nakedness ... and
- 3. The future condition ... the resurrection body."
- The traditional view of human nature has also been embraced and defended in different ways by Christian philosophers during this decade. Alvin Plantinga17, Richard Swinburne18, and Keith Yandel19 continue to affirm substance dualism. Charles Taliaferro20 has published a philosophical defense of "integrative dualism" in extensive dialogue with current alternative views. Stephen Davis21 has endorsed and defended dualism in an extensive apologetics for the resurrection. Gary Habermas22 and J. P. Moreland have done the same in their multidisciplinary case for immortality. Moreland23 and Scott Rae have elaborated a lengthy exegetical and philosophical defense of body-soul dualism in relation to contemporary ethical issues. Substance dualism is not such an intellectually discredited or out-dated view that competent philosophers are unwilling to defend it24.
- Other Christian philosophers, influenced by the Thomistic tradition, have elaborated more substantially holistic views of human nature that affirm a duality sufficient to allow for temporary personal existence apart from the body. David Braine25 uses contemporary philosophical tools to articulate a concept of humans as language-using animals that is a holistic alternative both to substance dualism and materialism and yet accounts for the possibility of personal transcendence of biological death. Eleonore Stump26 has developed an explicitly Thomistic anthropology in dialogue with current philosophy, brain science, and genetics. Jeffrey Boyd, a practicing psychiatrist and Episcopal clergyman, has recently advocated a similar view of the human constitution as necessary for promoting emotional-spiritual health, as well as for maintaining the Christian view of the afterlife27. The Thomistic tradition has generated substantive contributions to recent discussions of the body-soul question.
- The first edition of Body, Soul also considers the possibility that John Cobb, who embraces process philosophy in the tradition of Whitehead and Hartshorne, might provide a view of human nature that is holistic and yet dualistic enough to allow for personal survival of death28. This "process" approach to the body-mind problem has since been developed more fully by David Ray Griffin. Although my original questions about the consistency of process anthropology with an intermediate state have not been answered, his work deserves to be noted29.
- One position that was mentioned in Body, Soul but not given serious consideration is emergentism. This is a version of materialism that is arguably consistent with the possibility of an intermediate state. According to this theory, human beings begin to exist as purely material organisms, but the person with all of his or her mental-spiritual capabilities normally emerges as the organism develops and grows. Thus the human person is an entity that is distinct from his or her organism, generated by it and interacting with it, but that cannot naturally exist or function without it. At death, however, God supernaturally maintains the person with her mental-spiritual capacities in existence until the resurrection. William Hasker30 continues to promote this solution to the mind-body problem. Although I still have reservations about it, I think that emergentism, if philosophically tenable, could offer a materialist philosophy of human nature that is consistent with the traditional Christian doctrine of the afterlife31. If so, this is a significant development in the millenia-old debate.
III. Recent Affirmations of Alternative Positions
- In spite of the fact that beliefs in an intermediate state and the separability of persons from their earthly bodies are currently defended by leading32 biblical scholars, theologians, and philosophers, sincere and thoughtful Christians continue to challenge these beliefs.
- Some standard works on the New Testament simply ignore the traditional view. They present intertestamental Jewish and New Testament eschatology in terms of a straightforward alternative between the "Greek" idea of the immortality of the soul and the "biblical" idea of the resurrection of the body, failing even to consider the evidence for a third position, belief in an intermediate state that would combine aspects of the other views33.
- Other scholars directly challenge the traditional view. The most extensive recent biblical-theological case for an alternative position is Samuele Bacchiocchi’s Immortality or Resurrection?. Evangelical theologian Clark Pinnock has given an enthusiastic endorsement in the Foreword. Bacchiocchi34 defends the Seventh-Day Adventist appropriation of the "soul-sleep" eschatology inherited from a Reformation Anabaptist tradition. This book, perhaps the best defense of its position to date, is extensively documented and generally well-argued. Its emphases on the unity of human nature, the essential goodness of the human body, and the inclusion of the renewed earth in God’s everlasting Kingdom highlight important biblical themes. But in my judgment the book’s case against the intermediate state is invalidated by several factors.
In the final analysis Bacchiocchi’s biblical-theological argument for "soul sleep" does not so much challenge the case for the traditional teaching as skillfully reassert an alternative view36.
- The entire argument proceeds from the assumption that the immortality of the soul and the resurrection of the body are mutually exclusive, which is a false dilemma.
- It also fails to do full justice to the Old Testament belief that Sheol35 is a real place of the dead and
- avoids the hard data that some intertestamental Jews affirmed a conscious intermediate state, even referring to it as "sleep."
- Consequently it does not take full measure of the evidence that some New Testament texts most likely imply an intermediate state or refer to the human soul or spirit as existing apart from the body.
- Joel Green37 has published several works in which he argues that "the dominant view of the human person in the New Testament is ontological monism" and rejects the claim that it countenances a "separable soul.” He admits that intertestamental Judaism displays a variety of views of the afterlife38 and that the dualist reading of the New Testament has some textual basis. But he does not consider this evidence sufficient to justify the traditional position. While I agree with Green on many points of exegesis and on his theological affirmation of the holism of our final hope, I find his arguments for an alternative to the traditional position incomplete and unsound. For instance, he criticizes Body, Soul for claiming that the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus39 in Luke 16 teaches the intermediate state even though I am careful to say that this text on its own is not a proof-text for the intermediate state, but is about wealth and love for neighbor. I return to draw from it only after establishing that Luke does affirm an intermediate state in 23:43, Jesus’ promise of Paradise to the dying thief. In making his own case, however, Green first denies that Luke 16 suggests anything at all about an intermediate state and then avoids the topic when commenting on 23:43, thus failing to engage the debate about this important aspect of Luke’s eschatology. Another example of an insufficient argument is his alternative reading of 2 Corinthians 5:1-10. In attempting to avoid a disembodied40 intermediate state in this text, Green fails to consider 2 Corinthians 5:6-9, 12:2-4, and Philippians 1:20-24, where Paul, although he does not use the words "soul" or "spirit," explicitly refers to his own personal existence ("I") separated from his body. In general, Green plays down the evidence for the intermediate state and dualism in Scripture instead of either refuting it or providing an alternative reading that is shown to be as comprehensive and coherent as the traditional view. Nonetheless, anti-dualists find in Green exegetical justification for a materialist view of human nature and the afterlife41.
- Such views have been articulated and defended by a new generation of Christian philosophers. Most of them have adopted materialism for philosophical reasons, mainly problems with dualism and scientific advances in correlating mental activities with brain functions42. However, many have also asserted that their views are consistent with Scripture because it teaches bodily resurrection, not the immortality of the soul or temporary disembodied43 survival. Their greatest challenge has been explaining how the resurrection person/body is identical with the original person/body44.
- Peter van Inwagen marked this path at the beginning of the decade in "Van Inwagen (Peter) - Material Beings", where he gives a materialist ontology of everything in nature, including all of human nature. He has searched for accounts of bodily resurrection consistent with his position45. He has also argued that dualism and the intermediate state are more in the minds of Platonistic readers of Scripture than in the biblical text itself, fully aware of the significance of his allegation that the entire Christian tradition is mistaken46.
- A number of philosophers have followed van Inwagen’s lead. Lynne Rudder Baker has argued that a materialist approach to human existence is more consistent with the Bible’s view of humans as psychophysical unities and its promise of bodily resurrection. She surveys several scenarios for what follows death, claiming that "many different philosophical positions are consistent with the scant clues to be found in the Bible47." Interestingly, she even suggests that if there is an intermediate state, an interim body could account for it. Kevin Corcoran has developed similar ideas, claiming that persons are not identical with their bodies but "constituted" by them. He suggests that at death a kind of "fission" might occur whereby the earthly body becomes two things: a corpse and a bodily-person that could exist in an intermediate state48. Trenton Merricks affirms that human persons are essentially physical-bodily beings and argues that a person’s resurrected body can be the very same body as her earthly body even though there is a temporal gap in its existence. He gives reasons for rejecting dualism and an intermediate state and considers a number of texts in claiming that Scripture is on his side49. Though not materialists, Stephen Davis and Dean Zimmerman have offered different accounts of how materialists might explain the numerical identity of earthly and resurrected humans in spite of a gap of nonexistence between death and resurrection50.
- Perhaps the best-known and most popular philosopher currently promoting Christian anti-dualism is Nancey Murphy. She regards the body-soul question as one of many debates within the Christian tradition that involve false dilemmas resulting from wrongly polarized philosophical starting points51. She advocates a more "holistic" approach, which in the case of human nature is neither substance dualism nor standard materialism but non-reductive physicalism. This is the view that "the person is a physical organism whose complex functioning, both in society and in relation to God, gives rise to ‘higher’ human capacities such as morality and spirituality52." She has co-edited and contributed two chapters to "Brown (Warren), Murphy (Nancey) & Malony (H. Newton), Eds. - Whatever Happened to the Soul: Scientific and Theological Portraits of Human Nature", a collection of essays by Christian biologists, psychologists, ethicists, philosophers, and theologians, defending and articulating physicalism. She has promoted it among the broader community of thoughtful Christians in the review journal, Books and Culture53. She contends that "Christians can get along quite nicely with a view of the human being as a purely physical creation — one whose capacities for consciousness, social interaction, moral reasoning, and relationship with God arise as a result of the incredible complexity of the brain." With respect to dualism and the afterlife54 she asserts that "In the Hebrew Bible, human life is regularly understood monistically rather than dualistically, and this unified being is a physical being." “New Testament writers recognize a variety of conceptions of the composition or makeup of the human being but do not teach body-soul dualism." "Original Christian hope for life after death55 is based on bodily resurrection, patterned after that of Jesus, not on immortality of the soul." Physicalism is acceptable because it is compatible with Christian belief, she assures us, and it is superior to dualistic views in matters of philosophy and science, especially epistemology, neurophysiology, and psychology.
IV. Body, Soul and the Traditional Position Once Again
- The monism-dualism debate among Christian thinkers continues unabated, perhaps more vigorously now than when Body, Soul first appeared. Having reviewed recent contributions to the dialogue, I reassert my original position, then offer a concession, and finally propose an addition to terminology.
- I must reaffirm my claim that the New Testament teaches an intermediate state of fellowship with Christ for believers. None of the exegetical and theological works on this topic or the ad hoc efforts of non-theologians have come close to offering an alternative explanation of the evidence or refuting it. Recent discussions continue to suffer from the same deficiencies as their predecessors. One typical mistake is the assumption that the (temporary) existence of a person without a body and bodily resurrection are mutually exclusive alternatives. This is simply false. An intermediate state ought not to be confused with a Platonic notion of "the immortal soul," as amply demonstrated in Body, Soul. A second typical mistake of commentators and theologians is failure to take all the relevant intra- and extra-biblical data into consideration when making pronouncements about biblical texts. The Gospels cannot be read apart from the eschatology of first-century Judaism. No Pauline text can be exegeted without considering everything Paul had to say about being "apart from the body," the time of the resurrection, and his own education in Jewish orthodoxy and Greek thought. My reading of recent discussions has not found anything that seriously challenges the case for the intermediate state made in Body, Soul.
- Thus I continue to believe that the intermediate state is a teaching of Scripture. I still recognize that it is not a primary doctrine, such as Jesus’ resurrection and ours, which are clearly and frequently asserted by Scripture and confessed by Christians universally in the Apostles’ and Nicene Creeds. But although there is less evidence and emphasis, I do not think that Scripture is silent or confused or polyvocal on the issue. The cumulative testimony of the Bible is consistent, relatively unambiguous, and sufficient to assert the intermediate state as doctrine, just as the great majority of teachers in Christian tradition have done. Since Christians ought to believe what the Bible teaches, we ought to believe that there is an intermediate state. Although we may find views of human nature incompatible with this doctrine to be attractive or advantageous for other reasons, we ought to eschew them. One must have sufficient reason for denying or completely revising what the historic Christian church has affirmed as the teaching of Scripture and proclaimed to comfort millions of people who have mourned at gravesides: Our loved ones are with the Lord until the resurrection. None of the recent biblical and theological discussions are nearly sufficient to justify the wholesale revisionism or agnosticism that some propose.
- Are recent philosophical and scientific discussions sufficient? In a word, no. Although great advances have been made in understanding the functions of the brain and their correlation with various mental states, there is no conceptual need to abandon a doctrinally required dualism in favor of monism. Nancey Murphy is candid about this. After surveying the advances in brain science she admits: "it is still possible to claim that there is a substantial mind and that its operations are neatly correlated with brain events.... It follows, then, that no amount of evidence from neuroscience can prove a physicalist view of the mental56.’44 This point, made in Body, Soul, still holds57. Christian philosophers and scientists need not adopt conceptual paradigms that implicitly contradict sound doctrine.
- But now I must make a concession of sorts. Perhaps there are physicalistic theories of human nature that are compatible with an intermediate state. In Body, Soul I argue for "dualism" in the sense that persons must be able by God’s power to exist temporarily without their earthly organisms, which become corpses58.I do not claim that substance dualism is the only way to meet this condition. However, I do not seriously consider whether a materialist anthropology could meet it. I now concede this possibility. Earlier in this introduction I noted William Hasker’s emergentism, the view that persons are distinct from though generated by their organisms59. On this account, God’s supernatural power could maintain persons in conscious existence apart from their bodies until the resurrection. Also mentioned above is Kevin Corcoran’s hypothesis, that at death the physical body "divides" into a corpse and a bodily-person who exists during an intermediate state. Both theories are forms of physicalism and both allow the possibility of personal existence apart from the earthly body between death and resurrection. At the same time, however, both theories are kinds of dualism as defined in Body, Soul since both posit a "dichotomy" at death between the organism and the subsistent person. I do not know whether these theories are philosophically tenable all things considered and whether they are consistent with other Christian doctrines. I find them to be counter-intuitive and no less conceptually problematic than dualism is alleged to be, since they are almost kinds of substance dualism in disguise. My own philosophical position continues to waffle between substance dualism and the soul-matter holism of the Thomistic tradition. But I must concede that these versions of physicalism are prima facie consistent with traditional eschatology. If I am correct, this is a significant development that may bear fruit in the monism-dualism debate.
- Finally, let me propose an addition to terminology. Body, Soul promotes "holistic dualism," a term chosen to capture both the unity of human nature and the possibility of personal existence without a body. John Kok, a Christian philosopher at Dordt College, suggested to me that "dualistic holism" might be more consistent with the biblical picture, which emphasizes the unity of human nature as created and redeemed by God and which treats death and temporary disembodiment as an unnatural privation. Kok has a point. I concede that "dualistic holism," if not a better term, is at least as good. The position I propose is open and flexible enough to bear both labels. If "dualistic holism" seems better to those who wish to emphasize unity instead of duality, I am pleased to endorse it.
- Body, Soul, and Life Everlasting remains a relevant and substantive contribution to the monism-dualism debate. It sketches the contours of a view of human nature that reflects the entirety of biblical teaching, preserves the doctrine of Christian tradition, is consistent with the best philosophy, and is open to the most recent scientific discoveries. I am grateful for the interest that has led to its republication.
In-Page Footnotes ("Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting: Preface to the Second Printing")
Footnote 1: Footnotes in Blue are by me, others are by the Author. Where references are to books I’ve not got, and don’t intend to get, I’ve omitted them as not relevant to my purposes.
Footnote 2: Entailed by a relatively few, and disputed, verses; though, I admit that the “disputed” verses are only disputed by those who hold a view contrary to the “traditional” one.
Footnote 3: Well, the vast majority of those labelled “Christians” probably hold a lot of doctrines to be true that Cooper holds to be false (as well as a lot that non-Christians would take to be false). Truth is not democratic, and it is disingenuous to point to the majority verdict just when they agree with your own opinion. That said, it is a datum to be explained by those who hold a non-traditional view.
Footnote 4: Intermittent existence (Click here for Note) is a disputed possibility, but is not necessarily what is intended by “soul sleepers”, some of whom may not believe in souls anyway. That said, an account of just what they do mean is required.
Footnote 5: This is a shame, from my perspective. Does it reflect the fact that the main reason for accepting dualism is exegetical / theological?
Footnote 7: Not at all! Such a submission is only required of those with “high” view of both Scripture and Church tradition, and a low view of scientific or philosophical findings.
- If a philosophical position has to meet some ideological constraint, it is not truly philosophical. Now, philosophical positions have to meet empirical constraints (though they may – with reason – deny currently-accepted empirical “findings”). So, maybe Cooper would argue that meeting Scriptural or Church-historical constraints is an empirical constraint. Those not already committed would hardly agree.
- Presumably those with a sufficiently “high” view of Scripture or Church tradition would ignore scientific findings if necessary – or maybe just go along with whatever minority view is conducive with their position. Where this most likely becomes noxious is where those minority views are themselves doctrinally-motivated.
Footnote 8: Are these the same “faithful Christians” who deny various evangelical doctrines?
Footnote 10: This is Aristotelian Hylomorphism (Click here for Note), via Thomism.
Footnote 11: Now a retired Pope, of course. See "Tapp (Christian) - Joseph Ratzinger on Resurrection Identity" for an exegesis of his views.
Footnote 12: We are referred to the 1992 edition of Judaism: Practice and Belief, 63 BCE – 66 CE, by E.P. Sanders, which I don’t have, but might buy.
Footnote 13: We’re referred to "Wright (N.T.) - The New Testament and the People of God", p. 331. Maybe see "Wright (N.T.) - The Resurrection of the Son of God", though this was written later than either edition of this book, and Wright is not referenced in the main body of this work.
- I wonder whether the wheeze “I tell you this day” – ie. by way of emphasis, with OT parallels – is considered.
- See Link which, while an unofficial JW site, contains much useful (if maybe partisan) information.
- See Link for the orthodox approach.
- See also Link, a very-Evangelical-sounding defense of the heterodox position.
Footnote 17: Alvin Plantinga, "On Heresy, Mind, and Truth,’ Faith and Philosophy 16/2 (April 1999), p. 186. "Now I should confess up front that I accept dualism .....” He goes on to say that dualism was accepted by St. Paul and is entailed by what the Creeds teach.
- Joel B. Green, who does not believe that Luke or the New Testament teaches the intermediate state, nonetheless admits that "Jesus’ promise of Paradise ‘today’ is in keeping with Luke’s understanding of the immediacy of salvation."
- He also recognizes that Luke’s portrayal of the afterlife in the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (16:19-31) has "many analogues in contemporary Jewish literature." The Gospel of Luke (Grand Rapids/Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans Publishing, 1997), pp. 823, 607.
Footnote 18: I have a lot by Richard Swinburne, but not the items suggested; However, Swinburne’s views are addressed in "Cooper (John) - Holistic Dualism, Science, and Philosophy".
Footnote 19: I don’t think much of Keith E. Yandel, and the suggested article is only available in Faith and Philosophy which is too expensive to engage with (and is, sadly, the repository of a number of papers referenced in this book).
Footnote 20: Charles Taliaferro, Consciousness and the Mind of God (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994). On page 245 he writes, "In general, I think the Christian understanding of the afterlife is best served by assuming a dualist view of human nature." See also "Animals, Brains, and Spirits," Faith and Philosophy 12/4 (October 1995), pp. 567-81.
Footnote 21: Stephen Davis, Risen Indeed: Making Sense of the Resurrection (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993). Although he also defends a physicalist account of the resurrection for apologetic purposes, he endorses holistic dualism as his own view: "Introduction," xi, note 10.
Footnote 22: Footnote 23: "Moreland (J.P.) & Rae (Scott) - Body & Soul - Human Nature and the Crisis in Ethics" (IVP, 2000).
Footnote 24: Footnote 25: "Braine (David) - The Human Person: Animal and Spirit" (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992). See pp. 542-45 for his treatment of "The Question Raised by Death”.
Footnote 29: Cooper doesn’t seem to care what other commitments those sympathetic to some form of dualism have. Admittedly, process philosophy is less unconducive to the evangelical camp than process theology
- Eleonore Stump, “Non-Cartesian Substance Dualism and Materialism Without Reduction”, Faith and Philosophy, 12/4 (October 1995), pp. 505-531.
- What little I have by Eleonore Stump can be found by following the link.
Footnote 32: Well, you can always find someone to support your case. Where you should have concerns is where the consensus is against you; also, there all those on your side come from the same theist camp. In any case, I doubt the supporters of dualism are in the first rank, with a couple of exceptions (Swinburne and Plantinga).
- William Hasker, “Concerning the Unity of Consciousness”, Faith and Philosophy, 12/4 (October 1995), pp. 532-47.
- I don’t have the above paper, but a couple of others by William Hasker might be useful.
Footnote 33: See, for example, "Ehrman (Bart D.) - The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings" (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 277.
Footnote 34: Footnote 35: It sounds very much like the Hades of Greek myth, and no more credible.
Footnote 36: I don’t fully understand this distinction. I suppose what he’s saying is that Bacchiocchi doesn’t really attack the traditional “proof-texts” but focuses on his own positive agenda. I suppose this is standard – some texts never seem to fit the paradigm and are left on one side or dismissed with some hand-waving.
Footnote 37: Footnote 39: This is an old chestnut. Cooper admits that the primary purpose of the parable is not to teach anything about the intermediate state, but thinks it does teach this, because Luke 23:43 allegedly does.
Footnote 41: Footnote 42: Two influential books that take this philosophical-scientific approach are "Churchland (Patricia) & Sejnowski (Terrence) - The Computational Brain" (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992) and "Dennett (Daniel) - Consciousness Explained" (New York: Little, Brown, 1991). An excellent overview of the primarily materialist approach to the philosophy of mind during the past several decades is "Kim (Jaegwon) - The Mind-Body Problem After Fifty Years" in "O'Hear (Anthony) - Current Issues in Philosophy of Mind" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998). An excellent collection of essays by major philosophers on all sides of the dualism-materialism debate is Richard Warner and Tadeusz Szubka, ed., The Mind-Body Problem: A Guide to the Current Debate (Oxford, UK, and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1994).
Footnote 44: This topic is treated briefly in Body, Soul, Chapter Eight ("Cooper (John) - New Testament Eschatology and Philosophical Anthropology").
Footnote 45: "Van Inwagen (Peter) - The Possibility of Resurrection" reprinted in "Edwards (Paul), Ed. - Immortality" (New York: Macmillan, 1992), pp. 242-46.
Footnote 46: Peter van Inwagen, "Dualism and Materialism: Athens and Jerusalem?" Faith and Philosophy 12/4 (October 1995), pp. 475-88.
Footnote 47: Lynne Rudder Baker, "Need A Christian Be a Mind/Body Dualist?" Faith and Philosophy 12/4 (October 1995), pp. 498-504, 502.
Footnote 48: Kevin J. Corcoran, "Persons and Bodies;’ Faith and Philosophy 15/3 (July 1998), pp. 324-40.
Footnote 49: Trenton Merricks, "The Resurrection of the Body and the Life Everlasting," in Reason for the Hope Within, ed. Michael Murray (Grand Rapids/Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans, 1999), pp. 261-86.
Footnote 50: Stephen Davis, "General Resurrection and Physicalism," in Risen Indeed, mentioned above with dualistic views. Dean Zimmerman, "The Compatibility of Materialism and Survival," Faith and Philosophy 16/2 (April 1999), pp. 194-212.
Footnote 51: Nancey Murphy, Beyond Liberalism and Fundamentalism: How Modern and Postmodern Philosophy Set the Theological Agenda (Valley Forge, PA: Trinity International Press, 1996), esp. pp. 149-51, "Body, Mind, Soul, Spirit."
Footnote 52: "Murphy (Nancey) - Human Nature: Historical, Scientific and Religious Issues", pp. 1-30, 25.
Footnote 53: (See) "Murphy (Nancey) - I Cerebrate Myself: Is there a little man inside your brain?", Books and Culture: A Christian Review 5/1 (January-February 1999), pp. 24-26.
Footnote 56: "Murphy (Nancey) - Non-Reductive Physicalism: Philosophical Issues" p. 139.
Footnote 57: See "Brain Physiology" in Chapter Ten ("Cooper (John) - Holistic Dualism, Science, and Philosophy").
Footnote 58: See especially "The Intermediate State and Dualism" in Chapter Eight ("Cooper (John) - New Testament Eschatology and Philosophical Anthropology").
Footnote 59: Hasker’s view is mentioned in Chapter Ten ("Cooper (John) - Holistic Dualism, Science, and Philosophy"), footnote 27, where his emergentism is labelled "dualistic interactionism" because person and organism are distinct and reciprocating.
"Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting: Introduction - The Body-Soul Question: Still a Vexing Problem"
Source: Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting, 1989, Introduction
"Cooper (John) - Traditional Christian Anthropology and Its Modern Critics"
Source: Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting, 1989, Chapter 1
- Early Christian Views of the Afterlife1 – 7
- Dualistic Anthropologies – 10
… A. Augustine – 10
… B. Thomas Aquinas – 11
… C. John Calvin – 13
… D. Rene Descartes – 14
… E. Conclusion – 15
- Nondualistic Philosophical Anthropologies – 16
… A. Thomas Hobbes and Materialism – 16
… B. Baruch Spinoza and Dual-Aspect Monism – 18
… C. Conclusion – 20
- The Scientific Challenge to Dualism – 21
- The Challenge to Dualism from Biblical Scholarship – 23
- The Historical-Theological Challenge to Dualism – 25
- The Challenge to Dualism from Christian Orthopraxis – 26
- Conclusion – 31
"Cooper (John) - Old Testament Anthropology: The Holistic Emphasis"
Source: Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting, 1989, Chapter 2
- Introduction: The State of the Debate – 33
… A. Traditional Christian Dualism – 33
… B. Modern Christian Antidualism – 34
… C. Some Questions – 36
- The Holistic Emphasis of the Old Testament – 37
… A. Antidualist Emphases – 37
… B. Old Testament Anthropological Terms – 38
… C. Preliminary Results for the Holism-Dualism Debate – 43
- Philosophical Reflections – 45
… A. The Old Testament, Holism, and Monism – 45
… B. The Old Testament and Philosophical Anthropology – 49
"Cooper (John) - Old Testament Anthropology: The Dualist Implication"
Source: Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting, 1989, Chapter 3
- The Old Testament View of Existence after Death – 52
… A. Introduction: The Rephaim in Sheol – 52
… B. Sheol – 54
… C. Existence in Sheol – 55
… D. Terminology for the Dead – 59
… E. Hope Beyond the Grave; Resurrection – 62
- Philosophical Reflection: Holistic Dualism – 66
… A. Clarifying the Anthropological Image – 66
… B. Dualism: The Inescapable Implication of Existence in Sheol – 69
… C. Holistic Dualism: Philosophical Implication of Old Testament Anthropology – 70
"Cooper (John) - The Anthropology of Intertestamental Eschatology"
Source: Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting, 1989, Chapter 4
- Introduction – 73
- Intertestamental Views of the Afterlife1 – 74
… A. Old Testament Background – 74
… B. Sheol and the Sadducees – 76
… C. The Immortality of the Soul – 77
… D. Varieties of Resurrection – 78
… E. The Intermediate State – 81
… F. Hellenistic Dualism? – 85
… G. Where Are the Dead? A Topography of the Afterlife2 – 86
… H. The Pharisees – 89
- Summary and Conclusions – 91
"Cooper (John) - The Monism-Dualism Debate about New Testament Anthropology"
Source: Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting, 1989, Chapter 5
- Introduction – 94
- A Preliminary Assessment of the Case for Dualism – 96
- A Preliminary Assessment of the Case for Monism – 99
- The Key Issue: What Happens When We Die? – 104
… A. An Intermediate State Presupposes Dualism – 104
… B. Alternative One: Immediate Resurrection – 106
… C. Alternative Two: Extinction—Re-creation – 107
- The Strategy for Concluding the Debate – 108
"Cooper (John) - Anthropology And Personal Eschatology in the New Testament: The Non-Pauline Writings"
Source: Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting, 1989, Chapter 6
- Introduction: Refining the Terms of the Debate – 110
- Dualism in the Anthropological Terminology – 112
… A. "Spirit" – 112
… B. "Soul" – 115
… C. Summary on "Soul" and "Spirit" – 119
- Is There a Non-Pauline Eschatology? – 119
… A. The Time of the Resurrection – 120
… B. The God of the Living – 121
… C. The Transfiguration – 122
… D. The Rich Man and Lazarus – 124
… E. Jesus and the Thief on the Cross – 127
… F. Where Was Jesus Between Good Friday and Easter Sunday? – 129
- Provisional Conclusion – 132
"Cooper (John) - Anthropology And Personal Eschatology in the New Testament: The Pauline Epistles"
Source: Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting, 1989, Chapter 7
- Introduction – 134
- Relevant Pauline Texts – 135
… A. Acts 23:6-8 – 135
… B. I Thessalonians 4:13-18 – 137
… C. I Corinthians 15 – 139
… D. II Corinthians 5:1-10 – 141
… E. II Corinthians 12:1-4 – 149
… F. Philippians 1:21-24 – 151
… G. The Time of the Resurrection in Philippians and Romans – 153
- Conclusions – 154
… A. Paul – 154
… B. The New Testament as a Whole – 156
"Cooper (John) - New Testament Eschatology and Philosophical Anthropology"
Source: Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting, 1989, Chapter 8
- Introduction – 158
- The Intermediate State and Dualism – 159
- Immediate Resurrection: Monism or Dualism? – 164
- Monism, Re-creation, and the Problem of Personal Identity – 169
- Conclusion – 177
"Cooper (John) - Practical And Theological Objections agaist Dualism"
Source: Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting, 1989, Chapter 9
- Introduction: The Case Is Not Completely Closed – 179
- Objection One: Dualism Undermines Christian Orthopraxis – 180
… A. The Problem – 180
… B. Religious Dualism – 182
… C. Axiological Dualism – 184
… D. Functional Dualism – 187
… E. Social Dualism – 190
… F. Conclusion – 190
- Objection Two: At Death We Pass out of Time; There Is No Intermediate State – 191
- Objection Three: The Whole Person Does Not Die – 194
- Objection Four: An Immortal Soul Is Postulated – 196
- Objection Five: Dualism Is a Result of the Fall; It Is Not Inherent in Creation – 198
- Objection Six: The Bible Depicts the Dead as Bodily Beings, Not Immaterial Spirits – 200
- Conclusion – 202
"Cooper (John) - Holistic Dualism, Science, and Philosophy"
Source: Cooper (John) - Body, Soul and Life Everlasting, 1989, Chapter 10
- Introduction: The Final Topic of Debate – 204
- Dualism and Science – 205
… A. Brain Physiology – 205
… B. Psychology – 209
… C. The Question of Holism 210
… D. The Psychology of Near-Death Experiences – 212
- Anthropological Dualism in Philosophy – 215
… A. Introduction – 215
… B. John Cobb and Process Philosophy – 216
… C. Richard Swinburne and Dualistic Interactionism – 220
… D. Pope John Paul II and Lublin Thomism – 222
… E. Herman Dooyeweerd and Neo-Calvinist Philosophy – 226
… F. Summary – 230
- Final Conclusion: Holistic Dualism Vindicated – 230
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