Psychology
Gray (Peter)
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BOOK ABSTRACT:

Book Abstract

  1. Gray's comprehensive and thought-provoking introductory text explores Psychology's major theories, and the evidence that supports and refutes them.
  2. Each edition incorporates an exceptional amount of contemporary research, encouraging students to probe for the purposes and biological origins of behavior - the 'whys' and 'hows' of Human Psychology.
  3. An engaging, readable writing style and updated pedagogy make the science of Psychology, and its interactions with Biology, accessible and meaningful.



"Gray (Peter) - Psychology: Preface"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Preface



"Gray (Peter) - Foundations for the Study of Psychology"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 1


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 1, students should be able to:
  1. Define psychology, noting how how each of three nouns in the definition are themselves defined.
  2. Describe Descartes’ dualism and how it helped lead to a science of psychology.
  3. Discuss reflexology as a precursor to behaviorism, and explain how discoveries of localization of function in the brain helped establish the idea that the mind could be studied scientifically.
  4. Describe Hobbes’s materialism and its relation to British empiricism, stating how this approach is consistent or inconsistent with nativism.
  5. Explain how Darwin’s theory of natural selection provided a scientific basis for functional explanations of behavior.
  6. Define the phrase “levels of analysis” and list the two categorical groupings into which the eight levels of analysis described in the text can be grouped.
  7. Discuss one example of an explanation for psychological phenomena that focuses on biological processes.
  8. Discuss one example of an explanation for psychological phenomena that focuses on environmental experiences, knowledge and development.
  9. Discuss the links between psychology and the three main academic divisions (the natural sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities), and broadly describe the types of professions in which psychologists may become involved.
  10. What exactly is focused by the special “Focus Question” feature of the text and what is one means by which active use of this strategy improves memory and comprehension of the material?


COMMENT:
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  • Part 1: Background to the Study of Psychology



"Gray (Peter) - Methods of Psychology"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 2


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 2, students should be able to:
  1. Discuss the important research issues raised by the case of Clever Hans.
  2. Identify the three dimensions of research strategies, and describe the categories within each dimension.
  3. Describe the elements of experimental research, and explain how experiments test causal hypotheses.
  4. Explain the strengths and the limitations of correlational research, especially with regard to drawing causal inferences, and discuss the aims of descriptive studies
  5. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of laboratory research and field studies.
  6. Contrast self-report and observational methods of data collection, and describe the purposes, advantages, and limitations of each.
  7. Distinguish between descriptive and inferential statistics.
  8. Describe how the common measures of central tendency and variability, such as the mean, median, and standard deviation, help describe a set of numbers, and know how to determine these values in simple data sets.
  9. Explain the concept of correlation, describe how a correlation coefficient represents the strength and direction of a relationship, and recognize the various types of correlational relationships from simple scatter plots.
  10. Discuss statistical significance, including the factors involved in calculating it, and explain what it means to say that “results are statistically significant at the 5 percent level.”
  11. Distinguish between error and bias in psychological research, and recognize the ways in which bias can enter into research studies.
  12. Explain the importance of proper sampling in research, and how it relates to the generalizability of research conclusions.
  13. Describe how error and bias relate to the reliability and validity of measurement procedures, and suggest how validity can be assessed.
  14. Define observer- and subject-expectancy effects, and suggest some ways to control for such problems.
  15. Describe some ethical issues in psychological research, such as privacy, discomfort, deception, and animal welfare.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 1: Background to the Study of Psychology



"Gray (Peter) - Genetic and Evolutionary Foundations of Behavior"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 3


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 3, students should be able to:
  1. Describe the indirect way in which genes affect behavior, and explain how the effects of environment and genes are intertwined.
  2. Explain how meiosis and patterns of genetic dominance and recessiveness contribute to behavioral diversity, and why this diversity is an advantage.
  3. Explain what is meant by Mendelian inheritance patterns.
  4. Describe the conclusions of Scott and Fuller regarding the genetic basis of fearfulness in dogs, and explain what their research illustrates about the inheritance of behavioral traits.
  5. Distinguish between recessive and dominant disorders, and use specific language impairment to illustrate the difference.
  6. Explain what is meant by polygenic characteristics, and describe the effects of selective breeding on such characteristics, using Tryon’s study of maze-learning ability in rats as an example.
  7. Describe the process of natural selection, particularly in relation to the modern understanding of evolution, and explain how environmental change affects evolution
  8. Explain why evolution lacks foresight, and describe three common misbeliefs that arise when people think of evolution as working toward some planned end.
  9. Explain what is meant by functionalism in psychology, and explain how the functionalist approach applies at the evolutionary level.
  10. Distinguish between ultimate and proximate explanations of behavior, and describe two ways in which behavioral characteristics may arise that do not involve natural selection.
  11. Describe species-typical behavior, and explain how it is determined by biological preparedness, using humans’ ability to walk or talk as an example
  12. Distinguish between homology and analogy in behavior and anatomy, explain the logic underlying comparisons of present-day species to infer an evolutionary pathway, and illustrate this by describing studies on hive building in bees or smiling in primates.
  13. Describe the sociobiological account of the relationship between patterns of mating and parental investment.
  14. Discuss the sociobiological explanations for the adaptive value of aggression.
  15. Discuss two theories that attempt to explain the evolution of apparently altruistic behaviors.
  16. Describe two pitfalls to avoid when offering sociobiological explanations for human social behavior.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 2: The Adaptiveness of Behavior



"Gray (Peter) - Basic Processes of Learning"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 4


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 4, students should be able to:
  1. Define learning, and explain why an understanding of learning is important in every field of psychology.
  2. List and define Pavlov's terms for the stimuli and responses involved in conditioning a reflex.
  3. Describe the basic phenomena associated with classical conditioning, including extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination.
  4. Explain how the learning of responses such as fear, hunger, sexual arousal, and drug tolerance are forms of classical conditioning.
  5. Discuss Thorndike's law of effect, including the procedure that led to the formulation of his theory, and describe how Skinner extended the law of effect to explain learning in terms of operant conditioning.
  6. Identify and describe the basic phenomena associated with operant conditioning,.
  7. Distinguish between positive and negative reinforcement as well as positive and negative punishment.
  8. Describe the process of classical conditioning from the perspective of expectancy theory, and explain how operant conditioning involves means-end knowledge.
  9. Describe how learning is promoted by play, exploration and observation.
  10. Explain how specialized learning abilities have evolved related to species-typical behavior.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 2: The Adaptiveness of Behavior



"Gray (Peter) - The Neural Control of Behavior"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 5


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 5, students should be able to:
  1. Explain how an action potential is produced, and discuss the factors that affect an axon’s conduction speed.
  2. Describe fast synaptic transmission, including the role of neurotransmitters at excitatory and inhibitory synapses, and explain how slow synaptic transmission differs.
  3. Describe how brain imaging is being used to study brain activity
  4. Describe how motor neurons, interneurons, and sensory neurons differ from each other in structure, function, and prevalence
  5. Compare the structure and function of the autonomic and skeletal motor systems, including the sympathetic and parasympathetic portions of the autonomic system.
  6. Discuss the structure and functions of the spinal cord.
  7. Describe the functions of the brainstem and thalamus, and explain how the cerebellum and the basal ganglia are functionally complementary though anatomically distinct.
  8. Discuss the functions of the limbic system, and describe three ways by which the hypothalamus controls the body’s internal environment.
  9. Explain the principle of topographic organization of the cerebral cortex.
  10. Explain the functions of the premotor and supplementary motor areas of the cerebral cortex in skilled actions, and the role of the association areas in the control of movement.
  11. Explain, from an evolutionary perspective, why the nervous system is viewed as a hierarchy of movement-control mechanisms.
  12. Discuss the functional asymmetry of the cortex, citing examples, and explain what research with split-brain patients has shown about the abilities of the left and right hemispheres.
  13. Differentiate between Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasias1, and explain what these conditions reveal about the brain’s involvement in language.
  14. Discuss research evidence that neurons may be modified by experience, referring to studies of monkeys, and humans, and discuss the role of long-term potentiation in learning.
  15. Compare hormones and neurotransmitters, explain how the brain controls the action of hormones, and describe how hormones affect behavior.
  16. Describe three ways in which drugs can alter activity at a synapse, and interpret drug effects in terms of the hierarchical model of behavior control.


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  • Part 3: Physiological Mechanisms of Behavior



"Gray (Peter) - Mechanisms of Motivation and Emotion"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 6


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 6, students should be able to:
  1. Compare drive with incentive, explaining how they complement and interact with each other.
  2. Explain homeostasis and its importance in distinguishing between regulatory and non-regulatory drives.
  3. Distinguish between the five categories of drives, and describe the role of the hypothalamus as the hub of a central drive system.
  4. Discuss evidence that dopamine is a neurotransmitter in a reward pathway that is also involved in the rewarding effect of drugs, and explain the relation between brain-stimulation, reward and natural drives.
  5. Explain how brain stimulation is used to study drives.
  6. Discuss the role of the hypothalamus in the control of hunger.
  7. Discuss several other factors, both internal and external, that influence hunger.
  8. Discuss the factors that determine body weight, and discuss how dieting and exercise affect basal metabolism.
  9. Discuss how testosterone affects the male sex drive.
  10. Describe how the ovarian cycle affects sex drive in females.
  11. Describe the effects of the presence or absence of testosterone on the fetus1, and outline the evidence for the origins of human sexual orientation.
  12. Identify the EEG patterns for the different sleep2 stages and the differences between REM and slow-wave sleep3.
  13. Describe two theories about the function of sleep4, and discuss evidence that sleep5 is governed by an internal clock, noting how sleep6 deprivation affects behavior.
  14. Discuss evidence for the theory that REM sleep7 may function to maintain brain circuits and consolidate new learning.
  15. Describe the brain mechanisms that control sleep8, citing the evidence for these mechanisms.
  16. Discuss several theories of emotion, citing evidence relevant to each theory.
  17. Discuss evidence that the amygdala and frontal lobes are involved in the generation and subjective experience of emotions.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 3: Physiological Mechanisms of Behavior



"Gray (Peter) - Smell, Taste, Pain, Hearing, and Psychophysics"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 7


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 7, students should be able to:
  1. Describe the sequence of events involved in sensation, and distinguish between sensation and perception.
  2. Describe the basic mechanisms by which all sensory systems respond to and code stimulus energy, and discuss sensory adaptation.
  3. Explain how transduction, qualitative coding, and quantitative coding occur for the sense of smell.
  4. Describe how smell and taste interact to produce flavor.
  5. Name the five primary tastes, and explain why carnivores are sensitive to bitter taste.
  6. Describe how the two types of peripheral neurons respond differently to pain-inducing stimuli and how these neurons mediate different aspects of the pain experience.
  7. Describe the gate-control theory of pain and how electrical stimulation, opiates, and endorphins inhibit pain.
  8. Explain how the amplitude and frequency of a sound are related to the psychological sensations of loudness and pitch, and describe the functions of the structures of the ear, including malfunctioning that may lead to deafness.
  9. Describe how sound frequency is coded by the basilar membrane and why this explains the masking of high-pitched tones by low-pitched tones, and discuss other factors involved in the experience of sound.
  10. Describe the factors influencing absolute threshold.
  11. Explain how Weber's law was derived from data on just-noticeable differences and how Fechner arrived at a law relating sensory magnitude to the logarithm of stimulus magnitude.
  12. Explain Stevens's power law, and discuss why our senses may have been selected through evolution to operate according to a power law.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 4: Sensation and Perception



"Gray (Peter) - The Psychology of Vision"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 8


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 8, students should be able to:
  1. Describe how the structures of the eye focus in order to form an image on the retina.
  2. Describe how the receptors in the retina convert light energy into neural action potentials, and distinguish between rods and cones in terms of their distribution in the retina, sensitivity to different wavelengths, adaptation to light and dark, and acuity.
  3. Explain the relationship of light wavelength to color perception.
  4. Explain how subtractive and additive color mixing affect the perceived color of light and the laws that explain additive color-mixing effects.
  5. Discuss the trichromatic and opponent-process theories of color vision, including evidence supporting these theories, and how together they explain color vision.
  6. Explain how lateral inhibition provides a basis for the coding of contours.
  7. Outline Treisman's feature-integration theory and the research that supports it.
  8. Explain why we consciously perceive wholes before we perceive parts, and illustrate with reference to Gestalt principles of grouping.
  9. Explain illusory contours and lightness illusions in terms of top-down and bottom-up processes.
  10. Discuss perception in terms of the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes.
  11. List the brain pathways and functional abilities used to distinguish the "what" and "where and how" aspects of visual processing.
  12. Outline Biederman's recognition-by-components theory and the research that supports it, and describe how context and patterns of movement also provide bases for object recognition.
  13. Explain how unconscious inferences provide the basis for depth perception, and give examples of binocular and monocular cues for depth.
  14. Explain size illusions in terms of depth-processing theory, and discuss some of the support for and objections to this theory.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 4: Sensation and Perception



"Gray (Peter) - Memory and Consciousness"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 9


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 9, students should be able to:
  1. Describe the function, capacity, and duration of sensory, working, and long-term memory in the modal1 model.
  2. Distinguish between working and long-term memory, and how the control processes of attention, encoding, and retrieval move information between memory stores.
  3. Describe the preattentive processing model of attention.
  4. Explain how studies of selective listening and selective viewing demonstrate people's ability to attend to, and monitor, relevant and irrelevant stimuli.
  5. Describe the effect of practice on the ability to divide attention, making sure to mention Green and Baveller’s research with video games.
  6. Outline Baddeley's three proposed components of working memory, citing the evidence for each.
  7. Discuss the evidence for and against the role of repetition in encoding into long-term memory.
  8. Discuss the evidence that thinking deeply about something makes it more likely to be encoded into long-term memory.
  9. Explain how organization and visualization can improve memory.
  10. Contrast retroactive and proactive interference, as causes of forgetting, and describe the conditions under which these effects are most likely to occur.
  11. Explain why association by contiguity and similarity seem to be useful for understanding the organization of knowledge, and describe the spreading-activation network model of memory.
  12. Describe evidence that cues that were prominent during original encoding are most useful as retrieval cues and how environmental context can affect memory by providing retrieval cues.
  13. Explain the effect of construction on memory, including the roles of schemas and subsequent misleading information, and discuss whether hypnosis affects memory.
  14. Compare and contrast explicit and implicit memory, noting the varieties of implicit memory.
  15. Discuss the neuropsychological evidence for multiple memory systems.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 5: The Human Intellect



"Gray (Peter) - Reasoning and Intelligence"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 10


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 10, students should be able to:
  1. Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning, identifying typical biases involved in inductive reasoning and outlining the role of mental models and pragmatic reasoning schemas in deductive reasoning.
  2. Identify and discuss some strategies for making problem solving easier, including algorithms and heuristics.
  3. Discuss the theory of linguistic relativity, and cite some research that supports it.
  4. Explain how the wording of a problem or question can shape people’s reasoning ability.
  5. Discuss the meaning of IQ and how the issue of validity applies to intelligence tests.
  6. Specify and compare how Galton and Binet approached the task of defining and measuring intelligence.
  7. Describe Spearman’s theory of intelligence and how this theory was modified by Cattell.
  8. Outline the differences between fluid and crystallized intelligence.
  9. Explain what is meant by heritability and environmentality, discuss the research that assesses the contributions of genetic and environmental variability to variances in IQ, and explain the limitations of heritability coefficients in inferring differences.
  10. Describe research evidence for the multiplicity of intelligence.
  11. Explain the ecological perspective on intelligence, and cite evidence demonstrating the relevance of this approach.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 5: The Human Intellect



"Gray (Peter) - The Development of Thought and Language"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 11


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 11, students should be able to:
  1. Explain how infants reveal that they are actively exploring the world and remembering what they see.
  2. Discuss evidence concerning the development of object permanence.
  3. Describe Piaget's four stages of cognitive development, including the role of assimilation, accommodation, and operations, and summarize three major areas of disagreement concerning Piaget's theory.
  4. Explain both Vygotsky's sociocultural perspective and the information-processing perspective on cognitive development, comparing and contrasting them with Piaget's perspective.
  5. Explain the evidence that suggests that an understanding that people can hold false beliefs usually does not develop prior to age 4.
  6. Describe what the research on people with autism suggests about how the understanding of objects differs from the understanding of minds.
  7. Discuss the ways in which all human languages are similar.
  8. Describe the course of language development, including research on infant phoneme perception and how children begin to link words to appropriate referents.
  9. Explain the significance of overextensions and underextensions in the learning of word meaning, and describe evidence that young children do not simply mimic phrases they hear.
  10. Explain Chomsky's theory of an inborn grammar-learning mechanism, noting several types of studies that support his theory, and describe evidence for the critical-period hypothesis.
  11. Describe how the way in which adults speak to children is consistent with the social-learning theory of language development.
  12. Summarize attempts to teach apes language, and compare the language-learning achievements of apes and children.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 6: Growth of the Mind and Person



"Gray (Peter) - Social Development"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 12


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 12, students should be able to:
  1. Discuss the concept of attachment, including the lines of evidence indicating the importance of physical contact to normal development in infancy and later adult relationships, and describe the usual method for assessing attachment.
  2. Describe cross-cultural differences in infant care, and discuss the effects of these differences on attachment and development.
  3. Describe the research findings on how children develop the capacity for giving and helping and how they learn restraint and compliance.
  4. Discuss Hoffman's theory of parenting styles and how it may be supported by Baumrind's research on the relationship between parenting styles and children's behavior.
  5. Discuss the roles of play and gender in the socialization of the child, and explain how differential treatment by adults and peer groups contributes to gender identification.
  6. Describe the ways in which the adolescent establishes an independent identity, including the rebellion against parental authority and heightened recklessness and violence.
  7. Describe Kohlberg's theory of the stages of moral reasoning, and describe the results of research on morally committed people.
  8. Discuss the sexual double standard, and explain its evolutionary origins according to the theory of parental investment.
  9. Discuss love and family relationships during adulthood, focusing on the ingredients of marital success and satisfaction.
  10. Describe the relationship between employment and life satisfaction, and summarize the different ways in which men and women regard home and job.
  11. Contrast the theories of aging that are centered on activity and engagement with the idea of increasing socioemotional selectivity as people age.
  12. Discuss Kübler-Ross's theory of the five stages involved in preparing for death.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 6: Growth of the Mind and Person



"Gray (Peter) - Social Perception and Attitudes"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 13


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 13, students should be able to:
  1. Define social psychology.
  2. Discuss the ways in which we attribute causes to behavior, focusing on situation bias and person bias.
  3. Describe and give examples of attractiveness and baby-face biases.
  4. Discuss and give examples of the social forces, such as others’ expectations, that operate in determining the self-concept.
  5. Discuss the role of social-comparison processes in the formation and maintenance of self-concept, and explain cultural differences in self-enhancing and self-effacing biases.
  6. Compare social and personal identities, and describe cross-cultural differences in the balance between the two.
  7. Explain how prejudices are formed as an effect of stereotypes.
  8. Define the term “implicit stereotype,” and describe one method for defeating unconscious discrimination.
  9. Discuss the functions of attitudes, and distinguish between explicit and implicit attitudes.
  10. Define cognitive dissonance, and discuss its role in attitude consistency and change, including the insufficient-justification effect.
  11. Discuss the relationship between attitudes and behavior, noting some factors that account for their less-than-perfect correspondence.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 7: The Person in a World of People



"Gray (Peter) - Social Influences on Behavior"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 14


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 14, students should be able to:
  1. Describe a mechanism whereby social pressure could lead to diminished performance during an academic examination.
  2. Explain social facilitation and social interference in terms of dominant and nondominant responses to the presence of an audience, and discuss the purposes of impression management.
  3. Describe the basic procedure and finding of Asch’s conformity research, giving the normative and informational explanations for the high rates of conformity and the impact of the presence of a nonconformist, and explain the role of conformity in determining bystanders’ help for a person in need.
  4. Define group polarization, and discuss the hypotheses that have been offered to explain it.
  5. Describe groupthink, and cite some research that supports this idea.
  6. Discuss the low-ball and foot-in-the-door compliance techniques, how they may be understood in terms of cognitive dissonance, and describe the role of the reciprocity norm.
  7. Describe the basic procedure and findings of Milgram’s classic obedience studies, and discuss the criticisms of this research.
  8. Define social dilemma, explain some of the games and computer simulations that psychologists have developed to study such dilemmas, and describe how real-life social dilemmas differ from these games.
  9. Describe how intergroup conflicts can arise directly out of social identity, and discuss the use of superordinate goals in resolving such conflicts.
  10. Summarize the social functions of emotional signals, and describe how the self-conscious emotions promote social acceptance.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 7: The Person in a World of People



"Gray (Peter) - Personality"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 15


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 15, students should be able to:
  1. Define the concept of trait, and discuss the basic tenets of the trait approach to personality, especially its emphasis on describing and measuring individual differences.
  2. Describe the main points of the trait theories of Cattell and Eysenck and of the Big-Five theory.
  3. Discuss research on the situation specificity of traits, the validity of personality tests, and the stability of traits over time.
  4. Discuss the evidence on the physiological basis for the difference between introverts and extroverts, and the evidence on the heritability of traits.
  5. Discuss the ways in which personality variability provides an adaptive advantage.
  6. Outline the ways in which siblings have different personality-forming experiences within a family, including the effects of birth order.
  7. Summarize the ways in which Big-Five theorists describe gender differences in personality, and compare how evolutionary and cultural theorists explain these differences.
  8. Explain what is meant by a psychodynamic perspective on personality, and discuss Freud’s notion of sex and aggression as unconscious motivating forces.
  9. Briefly describe the post-Freudian theories of Horney, Bowlby, and Adler, and compare and contrast them with Freud’s views.
  10. List and describe the major types of defense mechanisms, and describe research evidence for the existence of different defensive styles.
  11. List the basic tenets of humanistic psychology, explaining how it differs from the social-cognitive approach.
  12. Describe the major elements of Rogers’s self theory, Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs, and the life-story approach to personality.
  13. Describe the basic tenets of the social cognitive approach, explaining how it differs from the psychodynamic approach.
  14. Define Rotter’s concept of locus of control, Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy, and the concept of adaptive and maladaptive optimism, and discuss some of the research examining these concepts.
  15. Explain why the psychodynamic, social-cognitive, and humanistic theories are not.


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  • Part 8: Personality and Disorders



"Gray (Peter) - Mental Disorders"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 16


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 16, students should be able to:
  1. Recognize that mental disorder is a fuzzy concept resting on human judgment, but that the American Psychiatric Association does specify criteria for identifying mental disorders.
  2. Discuss DSM as a diagnostic tool and some possible dangers in the use of diagnostic labels.
  3. Compare different sociocultural perspectives on disorders such as taijin kyofusho, anorexia nervosa, and ADHD and discuss the implications of different cultural perspectives.
  4. Describe the three main categories for thinking about causes of mental disorders.
  5. Discuss the ways in which sex differences in the prevalence of certain mental disorders are explained.
  6. Describe the various types of anxiety disorders, including how each involves the open expression of or defense against symptoms of anxiety.
  7. Distinguish between major depression and dysthymia, and discuss the biological, situational, and cognitive bases for depressive disorders.
  8. Distinguish between Bipolar I disorder and Bipolar II disorder.
  9. Describe somatoform disorders and psychological factors affecting medical condition, comparing some of the theoretical explanations for each category.
  10. Describe the major symptoms of schizophrenia and discuss the attempts at categorizing schizophrenia.
  11. Discuss the biological bases of schizophrenia, citing research on heritability, prenatal or birth trauma, and brain chemistry and structure.
  12. Outline the research on the effects of family and culture on the development of schizophrenia.


COMMENT:
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  • Part 8: Personality and Disorders



"Gray (Peter) - Treatment"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Chapter 17


Learning Objectives

After completing Chapter 17, students should be able to:
  1. Briefly review the history of the treatment of mental disorders from the Middle Ages through the reforms of the nineteenth century and more recent trends toward deinstitutionalization.
  2. List and describe the various places of treatment and providers of treatment that comprise our modern-day mental health system.
  3. Describe the use of drugs in the treatment of mental disorders, including the benefits and drawbacks of antipsychotic, antianxiety, and antidepressant medications and the role of placebos in testing drugs for clinical use.
  4. Explain the benefits and drawbacks of electroconvulsive therapies.
  5. Discuss the former and current (limited) uses of psychosurgeries.
  6. Discuss the psychoanalytic approach to psychotherapy and its focus on unconscious wishes and repressed memories, and describe its methods of free association, dream analysis, and mistake analysis and the roles of resistance and transference.
  7. Describe the basic techniques of Rogers’s client-centered therapy, including the role of empathy, unconditional positive regard, and genuineness on the part of the therapist.
  8. Discuss Beck’s cognitive approach to the treatment of depression.
  9. Explain the basic premises underlying behavior therapy, and describe contingency management and exposure therapies.
  10. Discuss the conclusions reached from psychotherapy outcome research.
  11. Discuss the role of nonspecific factors such as support and hope in making psychotherapy effective.


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"Gray (Peter) - Psychology: Statistical Appendix"

Source: Gray (Peter) - Psychology, Appendix
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