- Psychiatry today is in a state of psychosis. On the one hand there is depression and despair over the status of diagnosis and the actuality of mental illness, while on the other hand there is elation over biochemical advances in the understanding of schizophrenia; there is optimism about the pharmacological control of psychotic syndromes and at the same time pessimism about the long-term side effects of these drug therapies; and, finally, there is relief at the success of medication in the battle with anxiety, combined with anxiety over signs that the medication is addicting. Meanwhile psychology is in no less a psychotic condition, being unable to make up its mind whether or not such things as minds exist to be made up. Out of these predicaments a new psychiatric speciality, biological psychiatry has blossomed.
- Biological psychiatry is not the study of the phenomenology of human mental illness, but draws its substance from the biological sciences, behavioural pharmacology and the sciences of animal behaviour, especially. With its discoveries it provides the clinical psychiatrist and psychologist with means of analysing and treating the sources and manifestations of human miseries. This book describes some of these miseries and some of the work in hand to relieve them. The focus is on animal contributions to the study of human 'psychopathology1', but examples of natural animal behavioural abnormalities are also given. It is important to understand that certain afflictions of humans are also afflictions of lower animals, and that insofar as we share a common biological origin with these animals, then whatever is learned about the one necessarily adds to our knowledge about the other.
- Chapter 1 includes some behavioural disorders in animals, of a non-experimental origin, that resemble human disorders under similar circumstances. With the animals the particular circumstances are the immediate focus of interest, but with humans a personality malfunction is more often sought. The first chapter also includes an account of some ways in which such malfunctions have been considered, particularly from the standpoint of mental illnesses and clinical pictures. Criteria and pitfalls with experimental models of these conditions are also considered in this chapter.
- Chapter 2 takes up the questions of animal suffering and ethics of animal experimentation. Methods of humane experimentation with animals are described, along with an account of animal and human natures.
- Chapters 3 and 4 survey various behavioural anomalies found in laboratory animals and relate them to comparable human disablements.
- The next four chapters examine animal contributions to the analysis of human neurosis and psychophysiological disorders, addictions, psychosis and disorders of childhood.
- In none of these categories are complete 'hi-fidelity' models of human psychiatric conditions looked for. The relevance and value of animal studies varies from case to case: with psychosis it is to do with drugs and hospital management; with neurosis, with learning; with childhood disorders, with maternal deprivation and development; and with addictions, the roles of conditioned withdrawal and tolerance in relapse after detoxification.
- Thus the present work is not an attempt to force animal models on to clinical psychiatry but to illustrate ways in which these models can have psychiatric value. A summary of such ways constitutes the final, concluding chapter.
→ J.D.K. Toronto, 1985
Preface – xi
- Domains of biological psychiatry
- Psychopathology2: the status of animals – 3
- Animal experiments and animal welfare – 29
- Animal clinical pictures
- Abnormal movements and convulsions – 49
- Behavioural anomalies and misdemeanours – 77
- Animal models of disease entities
References – 211
- Experimental neurosis and psychophysiological disorders – 105
- Animals and addictions – 132
- True and model psychosis – 158
- Disorders of childhood – 186
- Summary and conclusions – 207
Subject index – 239
Name index – 246
Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1986, Hardback
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