People and Races
Brues (Alice M.)
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  1. This book is based on a course entitled Human Races, which I have given since 1968 at the University of Colorado. Though the course is officially of "advanced undergraduate" level, enrollment is not limited to anthropology majors and it has no formal prerequisites. Therefore, it does not take for granted any background in genetics or any of the special fields on which it touches. Everything that is necessary to understand the subject, beyond a general high-school comprehension of the world, is incorporated in the course itself. The book retains all this.
  2. Thus I have reason to hope that it can be read with understanding and interest not only by anthropology students but by students in other fields, or by anyone with college-level curiosity. I must emphasize to my readers what I always tell the class at the first meeting; this is physical, not cultural anthropology, and the social and political problems associated with race1 will be mentioned only incidentally.
  3. Few students seem to drop the course after this announcement. I believe that in a period in which the word "race2" has become politically and emotionally charged, most people welcome an opportunity to discuss the perfectly simple physical differences that distinguish populations of geographically different ancestry. The very air of conspiracy with which some people avoid talking about racial differences is enough to give the impression that these differences are in some way sinister. I do not feel this way. Racial differences need not be thought of as something puzzling or uncomfortable about strangers: they can also be something interesting about your friends.
  4. The subject matter of this book has been effectively reviewed by successive classes of students, who have showed by their facial expressions and sometimes bodily postures whether it was clear and interesting to them. I have not inflicted any of this manuscript on my everyday colleagues, so none of them are in any way responsible for its failings. I am indebted to Dr. E. L. Simons and Dr. David Pilbeam of Yale University for their critical review as editors of this series. Mr. Kenneth Scott of Macmillan has provided numerous useful comments, as well as relaying to me the anonymous reviews by which publishers like to raise the anxiety levels of their authors.
  5. The assembling of the "people-pictures” in Chapters 3, 13, and 14 has been a major task in itself. I have tried particularly to show a representative sample of the students, academicians, and political leaders which all races3 and nationalities are producing in increasingly conspicuous numbers. The acknowledgment of sources accompanying the pictures indicates the number of individuals and organizations from whom I received help in this effort. Where no specific acknowledgment is made, the pictures were either taken by myself or sent to me by the individuals represented. I am indebted to a number of United States political leaders for professional quality portraits appearing in this volume. The reader must forgive some pictures of lesser quality that were necessary to complete the world portrait gallery. For assistance in obtaining photos or for information about the persons represented, I am especially indebted to …

  1. Introduction 1
  2. The Discovery of Race4 8
  3. Races5 Large and Small 19
  4. Genetics and Human Variation 29
    → Particulate inheritance 30
    → Chromosomes 35
    → The relation of gene to trait 38
    → Genetics of sex differences 42
    → Studying genetics in man 46
    → Population genetics 49
    Race6 mixture 55
    → Genetic changes 57
    → Natural selection 60
    → Heterozygote advantage 69
    → The effects of isolation 72
    → Genetic drift 80
    → Genetic change in polygenic systems 83
  5. Pigmentation 86
    → Skin color 87
    → Hair color 97
    → Eye color 100
    → Correlations of pigmentation 105
  6. The Face 109
    → Noses 110
    → Eyes 115
    → Ears 117
    → Mouth and lips 120
    → The facial muscles 121
  7. The Skull 123
    → The brain-case or neurocranium 130
    → Teeth 134
    → The sutures of the skull 137
  8. Skin, Hair, and Fat 140
    → Fingerprints 140
    → Skin glands and secretions 142
    → Hair 143
    → Fat and its functions 149
  9. Body Size and Shape 156
    → The multiple causes of size variation 157
    → Proportions of the body 161
    → Growth, size, and shape 163
    → Racial differences in size and shape 167
    → Body build and selection 170
    → Body build in occupations and sports 173
  10. Physiology 176
    → Response to heat and cold 176
    → Altitude acclimatization 182
    → Resistance to infectious disease 184
    → Tuberculosis 187
    → Syphilis 189
    → Malaria 189 Yellow fever 191
    → Nutrition 192
    → Lactose intolerance 194
    → Diabetes 196
    → Alcoholism 198
    → Fertility 199
  11. Blood Groups and Other Biochemical Traits 202
    → The detection of biochemical variations 203
    → The blood groups 204
    → The A-B-O blood groups and race7 207
    → The geography of M-N and RH 213
    → Blood groups and selection 216
    → Other biochemical traits 220
  12. The Nervous System and Behavior 222
    → The sense organs 222
    → Behavior differences 225
    → Brain size and structure 228
    → Intelligence, aptitude, and personality 232
    → The heritability of mental traits 235
    → Population differences in behavioral traits 239
  13. The Geography of Human Races8 248
    → East Asia 253
    → The Mongoloids 255
    → The Australoids and Pacific islanders 265
    → India and West Asia 271
    → Europe 275
    → The Jews and the Gypsies 283
    → Africa 284
    → Madagascar 291
    → The Americas 292
  14. The New and Future Races9 303
    → The new races10 303
    → The future of race11 313
    Bibliography 316
    Index 325


Macmillan, New York, 1977, Paperback

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  2. Mauve: Text by correspondent(s) or other author(s); © the author(s)

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