An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis - Fourth Edition
Hospers (John)
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BOOK ABSTRACT:

Amazon Product Description

  1. John Hospers' Introduction to Philosophical Analysis has sold over 150,000 copies since its first publication. This new edition ensures that its success will continue into the twenty-first century. It remains the most accessible and authoritative introduction to philosophy available using the full power of the problem-based approach to the area to ensure that philosophy is not simply taught to students but practised by them.
  2. The most significant change to this edition is to respond to criticisms regarding the omission in the third edition of the famous opening chapter. A brand new chapter, Words and the World, replaces this in the fourth edition - which now features a large number of examples and illustrative dialogues. The rest of the text has been thoroughly revised and updated to take account of recent developments in some areas of philosophy.
Contents
    Preface to the Fourth Edition – v
    Preface to the Second Edition – vi
  1. WORDS AND THE WORLD: Language and Reality – 1
    1. Philosophical Questions – 1
    … What Is Philosophy? – 4
    … Verbal Issues – 6
    2. Words and Things – 7
    … Heracleitus and General Words – 9
    … Classification – 10
    … Words as Tools – 11
    3. Definition – 12
    … Definition and Existence – 14
    … Scope of Definitions – 14
    … Truth and Definition – 15
    … What Is Man? – 19
    4. Vagueness – 21
    5. Connotation – 24
    … Emotive Meaning – 25
    6. Ostensive Definition – 26
    … Impressions and Ideas – 28
    7. Meaninglessness – 31
    Exercises – 35
    Selected Readings – 37
  2. WHAT CAN WE KNOW? Knowledge – 39
    1. What Is Knowing? – 39
    … Belief – 40
    … Truth – 41
    … Evidence – 47
    2. The Sources of Knowledge – 50
    … Reason – 50
    … Experience – 59
    Exercises – 67
    Selected Readings – 703
  3. WHAT Is THE WORLD LIKE: Perceiving the World – 71
    1. Common-Sense Realism
    … Doubts and Deceptions – 71
    … Dreams – 73
    … Illusions and Hallucinations
    … Microscopes and Telescopes
    … Atoms and Electrons
    2. Berkeley's Idealism
    … Esse Est Percipi
    … Weak versus Strong Idealism
    Causation1 of Sense-Experience
    … Criticisms – 86
    3. Phenomenalism
    … Sense-Data – 90
    4. The Attack on Foundations
    … The Given – 94
    … The Attack on Sense-Data
    Exercises – 97
    Selected Readings
  4. THE WAY THE WORLD WORKS: Scientific Knowledge – 101
    1. Laws of Nature
    2. Explanation – 104
    3. Theories – 105
    … A Theory in Astronomy
    … A Theory in Geology
    … A Theory in Physics
    … Emergence and Reducibility
    … Explanation in Biology
    … Creation versus Evolution
    4. Possibility
    Time Travel2
    5. The Problem of Induction
    … Solving the Problem of Induction
    Exercises
    Selected Reading
  5. WHAT IS AND WHAT MUST BE: Freedom and Necessity – 132
    1. Mathematics – 132
    2. Kant and the Synthetic a priori – 136
    3. Causality3 – 140
    … What Is a Cause? – 140
    … The Causal Principle – 147
    4. Determinism and Freedom – 151
    … Freedom – 152
    … Fatalism – 154
    … Indeterminism – 155
    … Predictability – 155
    … Chance – 157
    … Determinism as Incompatible with Freedom – 155
    … The Theory of Agency
    Exercises – 165
    Selected Readings
  6. WHAT AM I4? Mind and Body – 171
    1. The Physical and the Mental – 172
    … Other Minds – 174
    … Can Computers Be Conscious? – 180
    2. The Relation between the Physical and the Mental – 180
    … Materialism – 182
    3. Personal Identity – 185
    … When Is It Still You? – 186
    Exercises – 196
    Selected Readings – 199
  7. WHAT ELSE IS THERE? Philosophy of Religion – 201
    1. Religious Experience – 202
    2. The Ontological Argument – 205
    3. The Cosmological Argument – 206
    … The Causal Argument – 207
    … The Argument from Dependency – 210
    4. The Argument from Miracles – 212
    5. The Teleological Argument (The Argument from Design) – 216
    … The Problem of Evil – 221
    … Alternative Design Arguments
    6. Anthropomorphism and Mysticism – 234
    … Anthropomorphism – 234
    … Mysticism – 237
    … Religious Hypotheses – 238
    … The Utility of Religion – 242
    Exercises – 243
    Selected Readings – 246
  8. THE IS AND THE OUGHT: Problems in Ethics – 248
    1. Meta-ethics – 250
    … Defining Ethical Terms – 250
    2. The Good – 254
    3. Theories of Conduct – 256
    … Egoism – 257
    … Altruism – 258
    … "Love Your Neighbor" – 260
    … The Golden Rule – 261
    … Universalizability – 261
    … Utilitarianism – 262
    … Human Rights – 265
    … Justice – 267
    Exercises – 276
    Selected Readings – 278
    Index – 280

BOOK COMMENT:

Routledge; 4th edition (23 Jan 1997). See "Hospers (John) - An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis - Second Edition" for the (much larger, and very different) 2nd Edition



"Hospers (John) - An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis - Fourth Edition"

Source: Hospers (John) - An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis


Preface to the Fourth Edition (Full Text)
  1. The first two editions of this book contained a long introductory chapter on philosophy and language. I believed then, and believe still, that philosophical problems can best be clarified, and some of them solved or dissolved, by first discussing the influence of language on the problems we employ language to discuss, and that, far from being an irrelevance or a delay in the philosophical process, such a discussion is a shortcut to the comprehension of philosophical issues.
  2. It is my impression that nonstudents who read the book began with that opening chapter. But most readers were students for whom the book was assigned reading, and apparently very few teachers assigned that opening chapter, with the result that the third edition did not contain it. There were enough complaints about this exclusion, however, that in the present edition the chapter has been restored, in a simplified and abbreviated form.
  3. Many introductory books begin with the topics in which students are already assumed to have an interest, such as religion and ethics. It was tempting to begin with these topics, but in the end this option was rejected. It was essential, I decided, to present basic epistemology first. I have therefore left the structure of the book much the same as it was, although most of the actual words are new. It is hoped that the new treatment is more accessible to introductory readers, and that the use of numerous examples and illustrative dialogues in nontechnical conversational English will induce the student to read on. Often readers have remembered certain examples long after they have forgotten what points they were designed to illustrate. I hope that what the reader remembers in the present edition will be an admixture of both.
  4. I would like to thank [ … snip …].



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